Curriculum Policies project

Australia Research Council funded Discovery Project 2007-2008

In Australia, much of the analysis of curriculum policy has been concerned with particular reports, or with commonwealth developments, or with particular subject areas or the agendas of a single state. This project aims to build a foundation picture of what has been happening across states over the past thirty years: in changes and continuities within as well as between the different states. It is interested in the changing approaches state curriculum policies have taken over this recent period to knowledge, to students, and to how academic and vocational agendas are marked out.

The project School knowledge, working knowledge and the knowing subject: a review of state curriculum policies 1975-2005 was funded as a Discovery Project by the Australian Research Council for 2007 and 2008, and was supplemented by further funding from the University of Melbourne through 2009. The main work on this project has now finished, but themes and questions developed from the project continue to be the focus of work by the project leader, Professor Lyn Yates in her new Australian Research Council Discovery Project Knowledge Building in Schooling and Higher Education: policy strategies and effects.

The background to the original project was a meeting of curriculum scholars from around Australia held at the University of Melbourne in October 2006. Participants were concerned about the decline in serious study of curriculum in teacher education and postgraduate study, and the extent to which curriculum discussion in Australia is dominated by political agendas and by media and single issue advocacy and lacks broader historical perspective and wider knowledge of curriculum scholarship. The current project was developed as one contribution to providing a basis for Australian students, teachers and policy-makers to take stock of how curriculum has developed in this country.

The intention of the project was to build an initial mapping and resource and an overview analysis of what has been important in curriculum formulation around the different Australian states from 1975 to 2005. As a two-year project with a national scope, this was not intended to provide a detailed history of curriculum over that period. Rather the intention was to focus at 10 year intervals on the key documents, emphases and formulations evident. It was a project working with policy texts and with interviews, and confined to a secondary schooling focus. Its analysis of curriculum policy was centered on these questions:

  • Where is knowledge seen to reside, and what sort of a thing is it seen to be?
  • How are the 'academic' and 'vocational' purposes of schooling depicted?
  • What characteristics and dispositions is the learner assumed to bring to schooling, and how is difference among learners construed in terms of curriculum policies?
  • What types of knowledge and what types of outcomes are named as core?
  • How are agendas about schooling as a vehicle of knowledge and learning of the young being put together with agendas about schooling as a mechanism of competitive selection for life beyond school?

The intention was to gain a sense of changes over time (in those decades preceding the formation of a National Curriculum Board), and also to gain a sense of differences and commonalities in values and approaches of the different Australian states to curriculum questions. For those interested in a more detailed account of the background, rationale, design and international and national theoretical context of the project, this can be accessed in Part E of the ARC application

Team

Those who worked on this project are:

Lyn Yates – Project leader and CI
Lyn Yates is Foundation Professor of Curriculum at the University of Melbourne.

Dr Cherry Collins – CI
Cherry Collins is an Honorary Principal Research Fellow in the Melbourne Graduate School of Education

Kate O'Connor – Research Assistant
Kate O'Connor is a research assistant in the Melbourne Graduate School of Education.

Dr Katie Wright – Research Fellow
Katie Wright is an ARC Postdoctoral Fellow in the Melbourne Graduate School of Education.

Dr Brenda Holt – Research Fellow
Brenda Holt is an Honorary Research Fellow in the Melbourne Graduate School of Education and the Chief of Staff at Trinity College.

Contact

For further information about the project, please contact the project officer:

Kate O’Connor
Research Assistant
Melbourne Graduate School of Education
The University of Melbourne, Vic, 3010

Email: koconnor@unimelb.edu.au
Tel: + 61 3 8344 8668

Project Outcomes and Outputs

The project had two main agendas:

  1. to gain a perspective on changing policy conceptualizations of Australian curriculum (knowledge/ student/academic/vocational) over the decades from 1975 to 2005; and
  2. to gain a perspective on state differences in values and approach in these decades prior to the formation of the National Curriculum Board.

It aimed to produce resources that other scholars and students might access that brought together the story of these decades across Australia; and it aimed to develop an interpretive account of the significance of its findings for the field of curriculum.

The project findings are summarized under the following headings

Curriculum resources and the problem of writing about curriculum in Australia

Our attempt to build a resource of key curriculum documents for each state at each ten year interval revealed the enormous practical difficulty of building even the most preliminary overview and mapping of key agendas across Australia. Despite some prior pilot work, a good knowledge of existing literature, and confining the project’s scope and focus to the framing agendas that are constructed for secondary schooling, the amount of primary document and archival searching required and associated difficulties was much more onerous than anticipated, and the project had to do much more foundational work than expected before the main focus of the project could even begin.

The conceptual ambiguities regarding what is an appropriate curriculum document and the practical difficulties in sourcing non-current documents, meant that the task of collecting documents for analysis for each state and decade is a major research exercise in its own right. In most cases, consistent archives of reports and documents are no longer maintained in a catalogued repository once new policies are introduced. To begin to build the list of documents we used for the purpose of mapping each decade in each state, we had to engage in a lengthy process of going from library searching to interviews with those who provide documents from their own private collections, or provide further information about where something may be found.

The problem is that even within the guidelines we set up regarding the state documents we analysed, there is no consistency to the form documents take. Sometimes they are explicitly produced as a framework document; sometimes as a report, parts of which may be enacted and parts not; sometimes important parts of a state agenda may effectively be carried not by a report but by instructions to principals; sometimes specific enquiries and instructions may be developed about girls or boys or gifted or indigenous students and so on – and these may or may not be incorporated in other general policies, or given concrete effect. We tried to capture some of this complexity by proceeding with multiple types of analysis, using the interviews, seminars and feedback from those doing other studies of curriculum over the period to develop an overview comparative mapping across states and decades.

Our findings regarding the difficulties of seriously studying curriculum in Australia have been reported in a number of papers. In particular, Lyn Yates reported on the project difficulties and curriculum over the period 1975-2005 in an AARE symposium entitled 'Australian Curriculum Inquiry as Educational Research: ‘Really Useful’ Knowledge for the 21 Century?'. In addition, an article relating to the difficulty of analyzing the curriculum interests and changing focus of Australian education theses over last thirty years entitled ‘Classifying Curriculum Scholarship in Australia: A review of Postgraduate Theses 1975–2005’ was published in the Australian Educational Researcher, Issue 37 (1), pp. 125–143.

The resources we provide via this website which we hope other researchers will make further use of are:

  • chronologies of curriculum policy
  • key curriculum policy and major education reports
  • Commonwealth, state and territory governments and education minister
  • curriculum Masters and Doctoral theses
  • subject-based journal contents

Australian Curriculum Trajectory 1975-2005

In terms of our first aim for the project, unearthing the changes to the conceptualization of knowledge in curriculum policy over recent decades, we found a trajectory over the period of study towards:

  • focusing on what students can do rather than what they should know;
  • being more oriented to managing and reporting rather than curriculum as such; and
  • having more interest in the developing child and the kind of world they are in, than more epistemological questions and arguments about knowledge-building.

This trajectory is one about which there is currently major international debate in the sociology, policy studies and curriculum literature; and is one which has significant implications for policy and reform.

Of course these developments were taken up with significantly varying degrees of emphasis by different states, but at an overview level, some commonalities over the period are evident as states faced worries about youth unemployment in the 1980s, and as they all began to turn from more taken-for-granted understandings of the school curriculum in the 1970s to the later decades where they are pondering ‘new times’ and worrying about what kinds of young people schools should be producing, and what this means for designing the curriculum. The sheer quantity of curriculum reforms over the period of the study around the country is one sign of the changing context and agendas to which curriculum (at a policy level) was trying to speak.

Another interesting element of following the changes over the four decades, and especially of interviewing people in different states who had been actively involved over a long period, is the experiences many leaders had amassed about what had gone wrong in earlier iterations of policy and policy implementation, and especially their understanding of the ways aims, adequate resourcing, political agendas, and accountability agendas often did not work in harmony. There were some widely shared understandings of why the earlier attempt at national curriculum commonality via Statements and Profiles in the late 80s and early 90s had been abandoned; and experiences of a number of people previously very critical of national and centralized approaches of the problems they had faced with managing an ‘essential learnings’ approach in the face of new accountability demands. These interviews gave some sense of why, in addition to an unusual political context of state labour and federal governments across the country, the time was more ripe for the National Curriculum Board in 2005, and also how the approach it was taking was directly taking up a number of the issues that had been difficult to manage in the preceding period – the burgeoning jargon and expansion of curriculum demands, for example.

One of the key debates about knowledge in recent times is about the role of subjects, compared with interdisciplinarity compared with competencies or skills. The papers arising from the project show the ways these agendas were being managed in Australia, with some growing emphasis through the 90s and turn of the century on the latter compared with the former, although the teachers themselves were trained in disciplines; and documents at the big policy level were often more attuned to the desired outcomes from schooling than the issues of what translated those hopes into practice in schools.

The growing concern with finding forms of managing and auditing what both schools and students were achieving was also an important trajectory of the period of this project. In the 1970s, curriculum documents tended to be thin, offering broad guidelines, with much being taken for granted or left to schools to implement. In the 1980s and 1990s, the documents became big and glossy, produced with public marketing and communication to the foreground, but also often attempting to pin down in micro-detail what should be achieved, what students should be able to do and who they should be by the end of school. Some aspects of the trajectory observable in curriculum policy thinking cuts across ways curriculum debate in the media is often seen, as direct expression of values of the left or the right about what should be known. In our study both progressive curriculum activists and managers of standards can come together, as they did in working up the national profiles in the early 90s.

This trajectory is one about which there is currently international debate and one which has significant implications for policy and reform. Some of the questions which this international debate takes up are whether the focus on competencies and skills is producing shallow foundations and paying insufficient attention to disciplinary structure today; or, conversely, whether curriculum lags sadly behind the kinds of knowledge, technologies and possibilities now seen in the home, in the community, and in cutting edge research. Another debate concerns the implications of a management and assessment and auditing approach to curriculum, where more attention is being given to external accounting and accountabilities than to the life of schools. The project showed the way Australian curriculum making has tried to grapple with these problems, sometimes taking an outcomes and capabilities approach to the curriculum; sometimes emphasizing the need for standard templates that could be used across all the different ‘key learning areas’; sometimes trying to work from community consultation; often running into a clash between aims and implementation, especially when assessment and accountability was added to the framework.

Papers on these findings have been presented at Australian and international conferences. Initially the project questions and early findings were used to convene a linked symposium with papers from six other countries at ECER in Gothenburg (2008), and this in turn led to a special issue of the European Journal of Education 45 (1) 2010, co-edited by Lyn Yates and Michael Young (University of London) on globalization, knowledge and curriculum. This special issue explores those important questions about knowledge, the 21st century and new management imperatives against a consideration of curriculum reform in Australia, in a number of European countries and in South Africa, and sets up some questions that need to be addressed further: the issue of difference and inequalities in relation to the approaches to curriculum; and the question of curriculum theorizing and the need to set the current discussions more properly against a consideration of universities and the creation of new knowledge.

An article from the project, 'The Absence of Knowledge in Australian Curriculum Reform' is published in this special issue. This article reflects on the extent to which leading curriculum actors we interviewed failed to talk about knowledge as part of their agenda for curriculum; and also our analysis of some of the frameworks that were set up in the 1980s and 1990s, which had strong aspirations for a certain type of person to be produced via schooling, but quite unclear details (as compared with rhetoric) about the curriculum and knowledge as a means to this.

The ECER symposium also led to an invitation to develop a World Yearbook on Curriculum in Today's World (edited by Lyn Yates and Madeleine Grumet University of North Carolina Chapel Hill), again taking up issues and findings from this project; and with contributions from countries around the world. Here the questions are about the substantive changes in the world, and what kind of a relationship to the world and to who we and others are curriculum in different countries is setting up. The Yearbook was published by Routledge in 2011.

Curriculum and State Differences

There are some enduring differences in how different states have approached curriculum, for example, in South Australia, by foregrounding a strong social justice concern, and attention to those who might be disadvantaged; in Queensland by a continuing preoccupation with rural students and some need for diversity and devolved approaches; or in NSW, a concern with standards and being seen to maintain traditions and benchmarks. These differences often have historical or geographic or demographic roots. They can be seen in the ways questions about assessment or about the organization of the system or about year 12 and beyond are addressed; that is, they are evident both as explicit values seen in the language of documents and interviews, but also in the ways questions about the arrangements for organizing curriculum are approached, and in what is taken as the starting points of policy questions.

The resources we have made available for others to review on this website include analysis of the policies of specific states and overviews of each state’s curriculum policy. The limited funding time-frame of the current project has not made it possible to produce detailed analyses of each state, but one analysis, of South Australia, was published in an article by Cherry Collins and Lyn Yates in the Australian Journal of Education, Issue 53 (2), pp. 125-140. The article, Curriculum Policy in South Australia since the 1970s: the quest for commonality, discusses the particular emphases and agendas of South Australia at the overarching curriculum policy level over the past four decades and argues that although there have been significant changes, some continuity of perspective has persisted, in terms of prioritising social justice concerns, focusing on the development of the individual student, and seeking commonality in curriculum provision.

A more comparative attention to the project findings on state differences and curriculum issues in Australia has been published in a book Australia’s Curriculum Dilemmas: state cultures and the big issues, edited by Lyn Yates, Cherry Collins and Kate O’Connor. The book shows the ways some big issues for Australian curriculum – knowledge and competencies; values, inclusiveness, assessment, retention – have been addressed in markedly changing ways over recent times, and across different states, and uncovers the ways different Australian states have taken different starting points for what matters in relation to curriculum. In addition to chapters on the main themes by the editors, the book includes contributions from senior figures across the different Australian states who have had a long-standing involvement and hands-on experience with the curriculum of their state. The book was published by Melbourne University Press in 2011.

This background attention to state differences is of interest for two reasons. First it is remarkably difficult to get perspectives on the history of Australian schooling which is not a study of a particular state, or is not primarily a study of commonwealth initiatives. But comparative study is enlightening if we are to consider ‘Australia’s curriculum dilemmas’ – the title of our forthcoming book. Even the preparation of teachers tends to take a within-state set of agendas as its ‘commonsense’. Some history of the bigger and differentiated Australian history of curriculum is a form of scholarship that needs to enlighten our conceptions of what we might do. This project and its publications provide a starting point on this comparative understanding of our national history and context for curriculum, but, despite some scattered very interesting pieces of work on individual states, it is a remarkably under-developed area of research.

Secondly, this attention to state differences in history and values is interesting given that we now have an agreed national agenda in train, with ACARA. How will the new curriculum policies work in practice in contexts which have different historical cultures or values in regard to curriculum?

Some of these findings were intended aims of the project – for example, changing conceptions of knowledge over the period of the study. Some of our findings were not intended – the amount of groundwork that has to be done in even bringing together the resources from which we might study our own history of curriculum in Australia. Work we have done in relation to this latter problem helps to elucidate some of the conceptual difficulties, some of the practical difficulties, and to make available here some resources on which we hope further researchers might build.

A complete list of the publications arising from this project is also available.

Publications List

Edited books

Yates, L., Collins, C. and O’Connor, K. (Eds) (2011) Australia’s Curriculum Dilemmas: state cultures and the big issues. Melbourne University Publishing, Melbourne.

Yates, L. and Grumet, M. (Eds) (2011) Curriculum in Today’s World: configuring knowledge, identities, work and politics, World Yearbook of Education 2011, Routledge, Abingdon, U.K.

Journal special issue co-edited Lyn Yates and Michael Young:
‘Globalisation, Knowledge and the Curriculum’. European Journal of Education 45 (1), 2010

Journal articles

Collins, C. and Yates, L. (2009) Curriculum Policy in South Australia since the 1970s: the quest for commonality. Australian Journal of Education, 53(2), pp. 125-140.

Yates, L. (2009) From curriculum to pedagogy and back again: knowledge, the person and the changing world. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 17(1), pp. 17-28.

Yates, L. and Young, M. (2010) Globalisation and the curriculum. European Journal of Education, 45(1), pp. 5-12.

Yates, L. and Collins, C. (2010) The absence of knowledge in Australian curriculum reforms. European Journal of Education, 45(1), pp. 93-106.

O’Connor, K. and Yates, L. (2010) Classifying curriculum scholarship in Australia: a review of postgraduate theses 1975-2005. Australian Educational Researcher, 37(1), pp. 125-143.

Conference papers

Yates, L. (2011) Curriculum as a public policy enterprise: Australian state differences and the past forty years of curriculum reforms. [contribution to symposium on: Curriculum policy: cases of translation], BERA Annual Conference, London, September.

Yates, L. and Collins, C. (2008) The absence of knowledge in Australian curriculum reformulations. (Part of 6-country symposium on The Changing Forms of Knowledge in Contemporary Curriculum Reconfigurations) ECER Conference, Gothenburg, September.

Yates, L. and Collins, C. (2008) Australian curriculum 1975-2005: what has been happening to knowledge? [contribution to Australian Curriculum Inquiry as ‘Really Useful’ Educational Research: A Symposium], AARE Conference: QUT Brisbane, December.

Yates, L. (2007) From Curriculum to Pedagogy and Back Again: knowledge, the person and the changing world. Pedagogy, Culture and Society Seminar, University of Manchester, February.

Yates, L. and Green, B. (2007). Curriculum Inquiry in Australia. ACSA Conference, Melbourne, July.

Chronologies of Secondary School Curriculum Policy

Mapping Curriculum Developments in Australia

In order to map curriculum developments across Australia, we have compiled brief chronologies for each state and territory as well as the national context. Rather than a focus on subject areas, these chronologies document the publication of major reports and the announcement or implementation of new policies, as well as other significant events, such as major reforms in senior secondary accreditation and the establishment of curriculum authorities.

Victoria

1996-2005  |   1986-1995  |   1976-1985  |   Pre-1975

1996 – 2005

2005
The Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) was published and released into schools for implementation from 2005 – 2008. VELS replaced the CSF II.

2004
The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority released Victorian Curriculum Reform 2004 Consultation Paper outlining a new approach to curriculum based around a 'framework of essential learning'.

The Education and Training Committee of the Victorian Parliament established an inquiry into the promotion maths and science in Victorian education.

The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority released the Review of the Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning Final Report in November.

2003
The Blueprint for Government Schools: Future Directions in the Victorian Government School System was released. The Blueprint established a reform agenda and future directions for schooling designed to improved student outcomes.

The Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL) was introduced into Victorian schools.

Lynne Kosky, Minister for Education and Training, delivered a speech entitled Framework for Reform, which identified curriculum as a priority area of educational reform.

2002
The Ministerial Statement, Knowledge and Skills for the Innovation Economy was released by Lyn Kosky. The statement outlined directions for the reform of the Victorian system of vocational education and training (VET).

Lynne Kosky released Improved Educational Outcomes: A Better Reporting and Accountability System for Schools, a statement announcing changes to reporting and accountability arrangements.

2000
The Curriculum and Standards Framework II (CSF II) was published. The CSF II was organised around eight key learning areas (KLAs) and covered Prep to Year 10.

The final report of The Ministerial Review of Post Compulsory Education and Training Pathways in Victoria (Kirby Report) was released. The report recommended new directions for the organisation and delivery of post compulsory education in Victoria.

1999
The Board of studies released Curriculum and Standards Framework II (CSF II) for discussion.

The Department of Education issued Bright Futures: A Guide for Strategic Action to Support Gifted Students 2000-2005 to all government schools, outlining a coordinated approach to curriculum for gifted students.

1997
The Report of the Committee of Review of the VCE, Enhancing their Futures (Dow Report), was released, recommending changes to the provision of the VCE.

The Victorian Board of Studies published Key Competencies in Teaching and Learning based on the findings of the Victorian Schools Key Competencies Pilot Project (1994-1996) which arose following recommendations made in the Meyer Report in 1992.

Multicultural Policy for Victorian Schools was released by the Education Department. The policy outlined the background and current context this policy and stressed that multicultural education must permeate all aspects of the curriculum and school practices.

1996
The Victorian Board of Studies published Using the CSF: Assessment and Reporting, one of a series of publications designed to assist schools with the implementation of CSF. This booklet was aimed to assist with the development of assessment and reporting consistent with the CSF.

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1986 – 1995

1995
The Board of Studies published the Curriculum and Standards Framework (CSF), replacing the 1987 Curriculum Frameworks.

The Board of Studies published Using the CSF: An introduction, one of a series of publications designed to assist schools with the implementation of the CSF. This booklet contained advice for curriculum review and planning.

The Directorate of School Studies released, Bright Futures: A policy statement to support gifted students.

1994
The Board of Studies released the Curriculum and Standards Framework for discussion.

1992
The report of the Taskforce on Pathways in Education and Training (Deveson Report) was released. The report made recommends on strengthening pathways and improving vocational education.

1990
The VCE was introduced as a two year certificate program for years 11 and 12.

1988
The Schools Division of the Ministry of Education published The School Curriculum and Organisation Framework, P-12, to be used by schools in planning, developing and reviewing curriculum programs.

The Curriculum Branch of the Ministry of Education released the Report on the Applicability of the ALL (Australian Language Levels) Guidelines in Victorian Primary and Post-Primary Schools.

1987
The new VCE policy was announced by the Minister for Education on 15 September.

The Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) was introduced into Victorian schools for Year 12.

The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Board released an options paper, Developing the Victorian Certificate of Education.

The State Board of Education published Directions in Curriculum: A Review of Curriculum Policy Documents in Victoria 1983-87, an overview document providing a synthesis of major themes and principles in curriculum documents for that period.

The State Board of Education and Ministerial Advisory Committee on Multicultural and Migrant Education released the report, If I Didn't Have Your Support information paper on non-English-speaking background students with impairments, disabilities or problems in schooling.

The Balkien Report was released: Improving the Science, Mathematics and Technology Education Base in Victoria.

1986
The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Board (VCAB) was established with responsibility for senior secondary certification, replacing The Victorian Institute of Secondary Education (VISE).

Education in and for a Multicultural Society was published, elaborating policy guidelines languages other than English, the importance of which was stressed in Ministerial Paper No. 6.

The Ministry of Education distributed Implementing Ministerial Paper No. 6. to Victorian Schools.

The Tertiary Orientation Program (TOP) was discontinued.

The Ministerial Statement Future Directions in Post Compulsory Schooling was released by Ian Cathie.

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1976 – 1985

1985
The Curriculum Branch of the Education Department released Curriculum Frameworks P-12: An introduction, a preliminary statement outlining the general approach to curriculum following the policies outlined in Ministerial Paper No. 6.

The Curriculum Branch of the Education Department released the first draft of Curriculum P-12 Frameworks for discussion in November.

The Department of Education released the report, Education for Girls.

The State Board of Education published a series of working papers, The Changing Context and Structures of Postcompulsory Schooling in Victoria, addressing recommendations for restructuring made in the Blackburn Report.

The Report of the Ministerial Review of Postcompulsory Schooling (Blackburn Report) was released. The Report laid the foundation for the development of the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE).

The State Board of Education and Ministerial Advisory Committee on Multicultural and Migrant Education provided a report to the Minister for Education, The Place of Languages Other Than English in Victorian Schools.

The Curriculum Branch of the Education Department released Destination Decisions: Decision Making Strategies for School Communities.

1984
The Ministerial Review of Postcompulsory Schooling released a discussion paper.

The Curriculum Branch of the Department of Education published Curriculum Policy Making: An Introduction for School Councils.

The Equal Opportunities Unit of the Education Department published Guidelines for Girls' Education in Technical Schools.

The Equal Opportunities Unit of the Education Department released Towards Equal Opportunity and a Non-Sexist School: An Action Approach.

The Ministerial Review of Educational Services for the Disabled released its report on mainstreaming for students with disabilities, Integration in Victorian Education.

The State Board of Education and Ministerial Advisory Committee on Multicultural and Migrant Education released a discussion paper, The Place of Community Languages in Victorian Schools.

The Equal Opportunities Branch of the Department of Education published PEP Participation and Equity Program Guide for Schools.

1983-4
A series of six Ministerial Papers were released. Ministerial Paper No. 6, released in 1984, outlined the framework for curriculum reform in Victoria.

1980
The Report of the Ministerial Working Party into Secondary Technical Education (Bainbridge Report) was released.

The Education Department released a white paper on Strategies and Structures for Education Policy in Victorian Government Schools.

1976
The Victorian Institute of Secondary Education was established.

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The 1975 Context

1975
The Tertiary Orientation Program (TOP) was introduced as an alternative accreditation for senior secondary school.

1972
The Year 11 Leaving Certificate was discontinued.

1970
The Higher School Certificate (HSC) was introduced, replacing Matriculation.

1969
The Year 12 Matriculation Certificate was discontinued.

1960
The Report of the Committee on State Education in Victoria (Ramsay Report) was published.

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New South Wales

1996-2005  |   1986-1995  |   1976-1985  |   Pre-1975

1996 – 2005

2005
The Report of the Consultation on Future Directions for Public Education and Training: "One Size Doesn't Fit All" was released in November.

The Department of Education and Training released the policy statement, Cultural Diversity and Community Relations Policy: Multicultural education in schools, superseding the Multicultural Education Policy Statement, 1983.

2004
The policy for gifted children was revised.

The Report of the Review of Aboriginal Education, Yanigurra Muya: Ganggurrinyma Yaarri Guurulaw Yirringingurray (Freeing the Spirit: Dreaming an Equal Future), was published.

2003
The Report on the Evaluation of Outcomes Assessment and Reporting in NSW Government Schools, A Time to Teach a Time to Learn (Eltis Report), was released.

Deputy Premier and Minister for Education and Training and Minister for Aboriginal Affairs, Dr Andrew Refshauge, announced a review of Aboriginal Education.

2002
The Board of Studies published the K-10 curriculum framework.

The Board of Studies published a second consultation paper on the K-10 curriculum framework.

2000
The Report of the Review of Teacher Education in New South Wales, Quality Matters. Revitalising Teaching: Critical Times, Critical Choices (Ramsay Report) was released.

The Board of Studies released the first consultation paper on the K-10 curriculum framework.

1998
The Board of Studies published A Review of the HSC Assessment Program. The review was undertaken following recommendations made in the McGraw Report, Shaping their future.

1997
In August, a white paper adopting many of the recommendations of the McGaw Report was released, Securing Their Future; The New South Wales Government's reforms for the Higher School Certificate.

In March, the Department of Training and Education Co-ordination released the report commissioned to review the NSW HSC. The report, Shaping their future: Recommendations for reform of the Higher School Certificate (McGaw Report), identified problems with curriculum, assessment and reporting, and made a number of recommendations for reform of the HSC.

1996
The Department of Training and Education Co-ordination released a green paper, written by Professor Barry McGaw, Their future: Options for reform of the Higher School Certificate.

The Department of Education released a gender and education policy statement, Girls and Boys at School: Gender Equity Strategy. This policy supersedes the Girls' Education Strategy, 1989.

The Department of Education and Training released a policy statement on Aboriginal Education, Aboriginal Education Policy 1996.

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1986 – 1995

1995
The Committee of Review of Outcomes and Profiles in New South Wales Schooling released its report, Focusing on learning: Report of the Review of Outcomes and Profiles in New South Wales Schooling (Eltis Report).

1994
The Ministry of Education and Youth Affairs released the policy statement, Achievement for Everyone: a strategy for equity in education and training in New South Wales.

The Ministry of Education and Youth Affairs released The Carrick report: Four years on.

1993
The Board of Studies published HSC Pathways: implementation Guidelines, outlining new rules to apply to the HSC from 1995.

1992
The Department of School Education released Education 2000, outlining future reforms of education in NSW.

The Board of Studies issued HSC Pathways for consultation, which incorporated a discussion paper on the Tertiary Entrance Rank.

1990
The Board of Studies was established and charged with responsibility for curriculum development from Kindergarten to Year 12 and accreditation of the HSC.

1989
A white paper on curriculum reform in New South Wales schools, Excellence and Equity: New South Wales curriculum reform, was issued by Terry Metherell MP, Minister for Education and Youth Affairs. This followed recommendations made in the Carrick Report.

The Committee of Review of New South Wales Schools released the Report of the Committee of Review of New South Wales Schools (Carrick Report) and made recommendations for K-10 curriculum reform.

The Ministry of Education and Youth Affairs published Schools Renewal: a strategy to revitalise schools within the New South Wales state education system (Scott Report).

The Department of Education released the policy statement, Girls' education strategy.

1988
The report Post-compulsory Curriculum Project Final Report: Curriculum development in the post-compulsory high school years in NSW was published.

The Board of Secondary Education was established (merging Board of Senior School Studies and Board of Secondary Schools Board)

1987
The Department of Education released The New South Wales Public School System: a statement of corporate purpose and goals.

The Department of Education released the policy statement, The education of students with learning difficulties from preschool to year twelve (1987)

1986
The HSC and system of certification in upper secondary was reformed.

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1976 – 1985

1985
The Department of Education published Quality Education (Teacher Efficiency) Review, which outlined procedures for teacher evaluation.

1984
The Department of Education released Future Directions of Secondary Education: A Report (Swan & McKinnon Report).

1983
The Department of Education released a general policy statement on gifted education, The Education of Children with Special Talents.

The Department of Education released a discussion paper, Future Directions of Secondary Education in New South Wales.

1982
The Department of Education released its first policy on Aboriginal education, Aboriginal Education Policy 1982.

The Board of Senior School Studies released Discussion Paper: Curriculum Review: Years 11-12.

1981
The NSW Legislative Assembly Select Committee upon the School Certificate released The Report from the Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly upon the School Certificate (McGowan Report).

The 1975 Context

1975
The Secondary Schools Board issued Base Paper on the Total Curriculum, Years 7-10.

1974
The Department of Education released the Report of the review panel appointed by the Minister for Education, The Community and its Schools.

The Department of Education (1974) Aims of Secondary Education in NSW. Sydney: Board of Senior School Studies and Secondary School Studies.

1961
Board of Senior School Studies was established with responsibility for Years 11 and 12.

1957
The Report of the Committee Appointed to Survey Secondary Education in New South Wales (Wyndham Report) was released.

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Queensland

1996-2005  |   1986-1995  |   1976-1985  |   Pre-1975

1996 – 2005

2005
The Department of Education and the Arts released a policy statement announcing the new Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting (QCAR) Framework.

The Department of Education and the Arts released Smarter Learning: The Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Framework

Bound for Success, an education strategy, was developed to improve educational outcomes for students across the Torres Strait and Cape York.

2004
The Framework for Gifted Education was released and sent to schools.

The Department of Education and the Arts released The New Basics Research Report.

2003
Youth Participation in Education and Training Act, 2003 was passed, which legislated for a 'compulsory participation phase' during which young people aged 15 to 17 must be either employed or in education or training.

The New Basics trial concluded.

2002
The Department of the Premier and Cabinet released the white paper Queensland the Smart State: Education and Training Reforms for the Future, outlining future policy directions for P-12 and vocational education and training.

The Queensland Studies Authority was established, replacing the Queensland School Curriculum Council, the Queensland Board of Senior Secondary School Studies and the Tertiary Entrance Procedures Authority.

The report of the committee chaired by John Pitman to review certification in senior secondary was released. The Senior Certificate: A New Deal (Pitman Report) formed the basis for the new Queensland Certificate of Education (QCE).

2001
The Department of Education released Years 1-10 Curriculum Framework for Education Queensland Schools to provide a structure for the whole school planning of curriculum and a better integration of curriculum, assessment and reporting.

The Department of Education launched the New Basics Project.

2000
Education Queensland released State Education – 2010, providing the basis for the 2001 curriculum frameworks.

Literate Futures: Report of the Literacy Review of Queensland State Schools was released by Education Queensland.

Education Queensland released the policy framework, Building Success Together: The Framework for Students at Educational Risk (FSAER)

1999
The New Basics trail commenced.

1996
Education Queensland announced the Leading Schools Program, implementing school-based management.

The Queensland Curriculum Council and Queensland School Curriculum offices amalgamated to form the Queensland School Curriculum Council.

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1986 – 1995

1995
Queensland Curriculum Council and Queensland School Curriculum offices were founded.

1994
The Committee appointed to review Queensland school curriculum released its report, Shaping the future: Review of the Queensland school curriculum (Wiltshire Report). The report recommended the development of new syllabuses to Year 10 based on the national statements and profiles.

1992
The Student Education Profile (SEP) was introduced.

1991
The Ministerial Curriculum Management Review submitted its report, Managing Curriculum Development in Queensland, to the Minister for Education.

The Department of Education published a draft document, Focus on the learner: Senior schooling curriculum framework.

The Ministerial Consultative Council on Curriculum released Broad framework principles to guide the development of curriculum.

The Department of Education published Focus on the Learner. Sample case studies.

1990
The Queensland Tertiary Entrance Procedures Authority (TEPA) was established following recommendations of the Viviani Report

The report of the Review of Tertiary Entrance in Queensland was presented to the Minister for Education (Viviani Report).

The Department of Education released the P-10 Teaching Framework Dissemination Guide.

The Department of Education released a status report on The P-10 Curriculum Development Program.

The Department of Education released Focus on schools: The future organisation of educational services for students.

1989
The Department of Education released the policy statement, The Corporate Vision for Senior Schooling in Queensland.

The Department of Education released the P-10 Teaching Framework for discussion.

Queensland Board of Senior Secondary School Studies was established with authority for Years 11 and 12.

A new education Act was enacted, Education Act 1989.

1987
The Review of School Based Assessment (ROSBA) published more discussion papers.

The P-10 curriculum framework was developed and released for discussion.

The Working Party on Tertiary Entrance released the report, Tertiary Entrance in Queensland: A Review: Report of the Working Party on Tertiary Entrance, established by the Minister's Joint Advisory Committee on Post-Secondary School Studies at the request of the Queensland Minister for Education (Pitman Report). This report formed the basis of the 1990 Viviani Review.

The Research Services Branch of the Department of Education released the Evaluation report, Hervey Bay College.

The Department of Education launched Meeting the Challenge: Future Directions for Education in Queensland, setting directions and priorities for the next five years based on a corporate management style.

1986
The Committee of Review released its final report, Education 2000: Issues and options for the future of education in Queensland.

A syllabus framework was developed for preschool to Year 10 (P-10).

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1976 – 1985
1985

The first of a series of ROSBA Discussion Papers was published.

The discussion paper, Education 2000: Issues and options for the future of Education in Queensland, was released by the Department of Education.

The Department of Education released a policy statement on the education of gifted children, Education of the Gifted in Queensland State Schools.

1983
The implementation of ROBSA began and continued until 1986.

1980

The final Report of the select committee on education in Queensland (Ahern Report) was released.

1978
The 1978 Review of Teacher Education in Queensland (Bassett Report) was published.

The Review of school-based assessment in Queensland secondary schools (Scott Report) was published. The report recommended that norm-based assessment be replaced with criteria-based assessment.

A parliamentary select committee was established, chaired by Mr M Ahern to investigate the State education system in Queensland.

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The 1975 Context

1972
The external examination for senior secondary school students was held for the last time.

1971
The committee appointed to review teacher education in Queensland released its report, Teacher education in Queensland (Murphy Report).

The board of Secondary School Studies was established (with authority for Years 8 – 12) to implement recommendations made in the Radford Report.

1970
Public examinations for Queensland secondary school students, the report of the committee appointed to review the system of public examinations for Queensland secondary school students and to make recommendations for the assessment of students' achievements (Radford Report) was published.

External examination for junior secondary school students were abolished.

1968
The Report of the Committee Set Up to Consider and Make Recommendations to the Board of Senior Secondary School Studies Concerning the Introduction of a Leaving Certificate (Bassett Report) was released.

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South Australia

1996-2005  |   1986-1995  |   1976-1985  |   Pre-1975

1996 – 2005

2005
The Department of Education, Training and Employment published South Australian Curriculum, Standards and Accountability (SACSA) Framework: the required elements. Part of the SACSA companion document series, it outlined key ideas and learning outcomes of the framework.

2004
The Minister for Education and Children's Services commissioned a review of the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE).

2001
The Department of Education, Training and Employment published South Australian Curriculum, Standards and Accountability (SACSA) Framework.

1999
The collaborative project undertaken by the University of South Australia for the Department of Education and Children's Services to develop and write the SACSA Framework began.

1997
The Department for Education and Children's Services issued Foundations for the Future: a declaration for South Australian public education and children's services.

1996
The Department for Education and Children's Services Curriculum Division published Exploring the Policy Principles: Assessment and Reporting for Schools.

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1986 – 1995

1995
The National statements and profiles were implemented in South Australian Schools.

The Department for Education and Children's Services published and distributed to schools the booklet Curriculum Statements and Profiles Implementation Support Plan 1995-1997.

The Department for Education and Children's Services issues the policy statement An Assessment and Reporting Policy for Schools. This was distributed to schools with a companion document, An Assessment, Recording and Reporting Resource.

The Senior Secondary Assessment Board of South Australia released a draft paper, A Future Directions Paper on Senior Secondary Education in South Australia.

The Department issued a policy statement on multiculturalism, Multiculturalism in Schooling and Children's Services.

1994
The Department for Education and Children's Services published and distributed to schools Statements and Profiles into Practice: Improving student learning outcomes to support the implementation of the national profiles in 1995.

1993
The Department of Education, Employment and Training recommended the adoption and implementation of the national statements and profiles.

The Senior Secondary Assessment Board published Future Directions in Senior Secondary Education in South Australia: a discussion paper for comment and response.

The South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) was introduced for year 12.

In December, the Department of Education, Employment and Training became the Department for Education and Children's Services (DECS).

1992
Following recommendations of the Gilding Report, the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) was introduced for year 11.

The Education of Young Adolescents in South Australian Government Schools: Report of the Junior Secondary Review was released.

The Education Department issued the policy statement, Students with Disabilities.

1990
The Education Department published a charter statement, Educating for the 21st Century: A charter for public schooling in South Australia, replacing Into the 80s: Our schools and their purposes published in 1981.

The Education Department issued the policy statement, Anti-racism.

The Education Department issued the policy statement, Student Participation.

1989
The Second Report of the Enquiry into Immediate Post-Compulsory Education: Implementation of the proposals made in the Enquiry's first report in January 1988 (Gilding Report) was released in July.

The Education Department published Student Assessment.

The Education Department issued the policy statement, School Discipline: The Management of Student Behaviour.

The Senior Secondary Assessment Board published Information and Advice for Schools.

1988
The Report of the Enquiry into Immediate Post-Compulsory Education, Volume I (Gilding Report) was released in January.

1987
The Department of Education, Employment and Training issued the policy statement on computers in schools, Schools computing policy.

The Education Department published The Connecting Conversation: Literacy, Learning in the English Classroom: policy and guidelines.

1986
The Education of girls: an implementation of strategy was released.

The Education and Training Task Force (chaired by Gilding) released its report, Making things work: Learning for competence and enterprise. The Report included discussion on vocational education, ideas elaborated later in the Gilding Reports.

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1976 – 1985

1985
The Education Department issued a policy on languages.

1984
The Senior Secondary Assessment Board of South Australia (SSABSA) was established, replacing the Public Examinations Board of South Australia (PEBSA).

The Taskforce appointed to investigate multiculturalism and education released its report, Education for a Cultural Democracy; Report to the Minister of Education (Smolicz Report).

The Senior Secondary Assessment Board of South Australia released a discussion paper, Curriculum and assessment policy at year 12: a discussion paper inviting your response.

The Education Department issued the policy statement, Sexual harassment

The Education Department issued the policy statement, Fostering the Gifts and Talents of Children

1983
The report of the Languages Working Party was released, Voices for the future: a languages policy for South Australian schools.

The Education Department issued the policy statement, Equal opportunities: the education of girls in South Australian government schools

1982
The Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia [1980-1982] released its final report, Education and change in South Australia: final report (Keeves Report).

The Education Department issued, Diversity and Cohesion: A Policy Statement on Multiculturalism and Education.

The Curriculum Directorate of the Education Department released Consultation: Schooling for 15-19 year old: report of consultations with schools and curriculum leaders.

The Curriculum Directorate of the Education Department released Beyond Compulsion: Schooling for 15-19 years olds. Report of the Working Party on Post Compulsory Schooling.

1981
The Department of Education released the policy statement, Into the 80s: Our schools and their purposes.

The Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia, chaired by J. Keeves, released a discussion paper.

1980
The government convened a committee to conduct a systematic enquiry into education in South Australia and appointed John Keeves as the chair.

1978
The Education Department released Report of the Committee of Enquiry into year 12 Examinations in South Australia (Jones Report).

The Directorate of Research and Planning, Department of Education released School controlled evaluation.

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The 1975 Context

1971
The Karmel Report, Education in South Australia: Report of the Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia, 1969-1970 was released.

1970
The Director-General of Education, A.W. Jones, issued the memorandum to school principles, Freedom and Authority in Schools.

1969
The Public Examinations Board (PEB) was established with responsibility for years 11 and 12.

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Western Australia

1996-2005  |   1986-1995  |   1976-1985  |   Pre-1975  |  

1996 – 2005

2005
The Department of Education and Training published Outcomes and Standards Framework. Based on the Curriculum Framework Progress Maps, this framework provided a new basis for monitoring student progress.

The Curriculum Council published Curriculum Framework Progress Maps. These publications included an overview document and books of descriptions for outcomes in each of the eight learning areas.

The new Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) was introduced with courses of study to be phased in from 2005-2009.

The Curriculum Council published The new Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE): Information for administrators.

The Department of Education and Training issued a policy statement, The Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Policy.

The Department of Education and Training released School Accountability Framework.

The Report of the Ministerial Taskforce on issues surrounding proposed changes to post-compulsory education (Robson Report) was released.

The Department of Education and Training issued the policy statement, Gifted and Talented.

2003
The Department of Education and Training issued the policy statement, Antiracism.

2002
Our Youth, Our Future: Post-Compulsory Education Review Summary of the directions endorsed by the Western Australian Government was released in March.

The Education Department issued a policy on VET in schools, The K-12 guide to enterprise education.

2001
The report on the Review of Post-Compulsory Education, Our Youth, Our Future: Post-compulsory Education Review, was released in November.

2000
A formative evaluation of the five year Curriculum Improvement Program was commenced in 2000.

In November, a second paper from Post-Compulsory Education Review was released by the Curriculum Council, The Post-Compulsory Education Review Position Paper.

1999
The Education Department published Focusing on Outcomes: Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting.

The School Education Act 1999 was passed.

In October the Curriculum Council released Post-Compulsory Education Review Discussion Paper.

1998
The Curriculum Council published its new K-12 Curriculum Framework, Curriculum framework for kindergarten to year 12 education in Western Australia.

The Curriculum Council published An introduction to the curriculum framework: a guide for school-based curriculum planning, a supporting document to the new K-12 framework.

The Education Department issued the policy statement, Curriculum, assessment and reporting: policy and guidelines.

The Education Department published Student Outcome Statements: Overview.

The Curriculum Council began a statewide review of post-compulsory education.

1997
The Curriculum Council Act 1997 was passed, repealing the Secondary Education Authority Act 1984. The Act established the Curriculum Council (replacing the Secondary Education Authority) and provided for the development of a curriculum framework.

The Education Department published School Performance: A framework for improving and reporting.

1996
The Education Department published a working edition of Student Outcome Statements.

The Department of Education published Policy and guidelines for the education of gifted and talented students.

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1986 – 1995

1995
Review of School Curriculum Development Procedures and Processes in Western Australia (Temby Report) was released.

1994
The Ministerial Review of Schooling in Rural Western Australia released its report, Schooling in Rural Western Australia.

The Department of Education issued a Policy for the education of gifted and talented students

The Education Department published working edition of Student Outcome Statements.

1993
The Committee of Review of Education Employment and Training released its report, Review of Education and Training (Vickery Report).

1991
The Ministry of Education published Educational Standards in Western Australian Government Schools 1990: The Monitoring Standards in Education Program.

1990
The Joint School/TAFE Ministerial Post-Compulsory Education Taskforce released the report, Adjusting to the Future: A framework for post-compulsory education.

The Ministry of Education issued the policy statement, School Decision Making: Policy and Guidelines.

1989
The Ministry of Education released Upper secondary certification and tertiary entrance: Review of upper secondary certification and tertiary entrance procedures commissioned by the Minister for Education in Western Australia (Andrich Report).

The Ministry of Education issued the policy statement, School Development Plans: Policy and guidelines.

1988
The Working Party on the Development of a Policy for the Teaching of Languages Other Than English (LOTE) released in March, Languages for Western Australians: report of the Ministerial Working Party on the Development of a Policy for the Teaching of Languages Other Than English (LOTE) in Western Australian Schools.

The Western Australian Government published Government Schools in Western Australia: A Statement by the Premier.

The Ministry of Education published Gender, Ethnicity and Class: The career crunch for girls from non-English speaking background.

1987
The Ministry of Education published Better Schools in Western Australia: A programme for improvement (Pearce Better Schools Report).

1986
The Department of Education issued the policy statement, Sexual Harassment Policy.

The Education Department published Corporate Plan: Strategic Plan 1986.

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1976 – 1985

1985
The Secondary Education Authority (SEA) was established, replacing the Board of Secondary Education.

1984
The Ministerial Working Party on School Certification and Tertiary Admissions Procedures released its report, Assessment in the Upper Secondary School in Western Australia (McGaw Report).

The Secondary Education Authority Act 1984, was passed.

The Committee of Inquiry into Education in Western Australia released its report, Education in Western Australia: Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Education in Western Australia (Beazley Report).

1981
The Department of Education released the report, Review of Educational Standards in Lower-Secondary Schools in Western Australia (Priest Report).

1977
The Department of Education published Disadvantaged Schools Programme handbook 1977: Programme description and proposal guidelines.

The Committee of Inquiry into Religious Education in the Government Schools of Western Australia released the report, Religious education in the government schools of Western Australia: Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Religious Education in the Government Schools of Western Australia.

1976
The Committee Appointed to Enquire into the Incidence of Sex-Based Discrimination released the report, Males and females in the state education system of Western Australia: A report to the Minister for Education.

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The 1975 Context

1972
The Committee Enquiring into Discipline in Secondary Schools released Discipline in Secondary Education in Western Australia.

The Certificate of Achievement was first awarded by the Board of Secondary Education (BSE) for Year 10 students, replacing the Junior Certificate awarded by the Public Examinations Board (PEB).

1969
Following recommendations made in the Dettman Report, the Board of Secondary Education (BSE) was established to approve courses for secondary schools.

The Committee on Secondary Education released Secondary Education in Western Australia (Dettman Report).

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Tasmania

1996-2005  |   1986-1995  |   1976-1985  |   Pre-1975  |  

1996 – 2005

2005
The Department of Education published Essential Learnings Assessing Guide, a reference booklet to assist teachers in planning and conducting assessment processes outlined in the Essential Learnings Framework.

2004

The Department of Education published Guiding Learning Communities: A professional learning resource, a series of 8 booklets that included one on curriculum planning.

The Department of Education published a further three editions of Directions in Assessment and Reporting to support the introduction of the Essential Learnings Framework.

The Tasmanian Qualifications Authority was established with responsibility for Years 11-12 and post compulsory qualification (merging the Tasmanian Secondary Assessment Board, The Universities Registration Council and the Tasmanian Accreditation and Recognition Committee).

2003
The Department of Education launched Tasmania A State of Learning: A Strategy for Post-Year 10 Education and Training in December. The strategy, which falls within the broader framework Guaranteeing Futures, set out future directions for post-compulsory education and training.

The Department of Education published Directions in Assessment and Reporting, the first in a series of booklets circulated to schools to support the introduction of the Essential Learnings Framework.

In March the Department of Education released the Essential Learnings Framework 2 which outlined the structure of essential learnings outcomes and standards and described reporting requirements.

The Department of Education released Literacy and Numeracy Plan for Schools 2003/2005.

2002
In March the Department of Education released Essential Learnings Framework 1. The framework included a statement of values and purposes, identified essential learnings, and provided an overview of learning, teaching and assessment principles.

2000
The Department of Education released the policy statement, Learning Together: A Vision for Education, Training and Information into the 21st Century. It complemented the broader goals and visions outlined in Tasmania Together and recommended a review of the Tasmanian school curriculum.

The Department of Education released the revised policy statement, Education for Students who are Gifted.

1998
The Department of Education released Anti-discrimination and anti-harassment policy.

1997
The Department of Education released the Directions for Education Statement, which outlined new guidelines for measuring, monitoring and reporting learning outcomes.

The Department of Community and Cultural Development released Key Intended Literacy Outcomes, Tasmania, which described literacy outcomes for Tasmanian students

The Department of Community and Cultural Development released Key Intended Numeracy Outcomes, Tasmania, which described numeracy outcomes for Tasmanian students

The Department of Community and Cultural Development released its Literacy Policy.

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1986 – 1995

1995
The Tasmanian Secondary Assessment Board was established with responsibility for Years 9 – 12.

The Department of Education released Numerate Students, Numerate Adults which outlined the importance of numeracy as a cross-curriculum issue for all teachers.

The Department of Education released, Equity in Schooling Policy and Education for Students who are Gifted.

1994
The Curriculum Services Branch of the Department of Education distributed Working with Statements and Profiles: a folio of curriculum support materials to schools.

The Department of Education released policy statements on Gender Equity and the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Regular Schools.

1993
The Department of Education published Framework for curriculum provision K-12: interim statement, which identified eight key curriculum learning areas.

The Educational Planning Branch of the Department of Education released Literacy Policy.

The Department of Education released Gender Equity Implementation Plan 1993-97.

1990
The Department of Education published the report of the review of the Department of Education and the Arts, Foundations for the future: A focus for the administration of Tasmanian education and the arts (Cresap Report).

1989
The Department of Education released Supportive School Environments: Policy statement and program of support for schools.

1988
The Department of Education published A Selection of Good Practices: Tasmanian government schools and secondary colleges 1984-87.

1987
The Education Department released Secondary Education: The Future. This major policy statement outlined the goals and objectives for the future of secondary education in Tasmania.

The Schools Board of Tasmania released The Tasmanian Certificate of Education: Statement of policy.

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1976 – 1985

1985
The Education Department released the policy discussion paper, The Future of Secondary Colleges and Senior Secondary Education in Tasmania.

1984
The Department of Education and the Australian Schools Commission published Choice and diversity in Tasmanian secondary schools: a State report.

The Special Sub-Committee of the Schools Board of Tasmania released the report, The Future of Certification in Tasmania.

1983
The Multicultural Education Co-ordinating Committee released Multicultural approaches in Tasmanian education: a K-10 curriculum statement.

The Department of Education released A Review of Special Education.

1981
The Minister for Education issued White Paper on Tasmanian Schools and Colleges in the 1980s.

1980
The Education Department published the discussion paper, Requirements for a Curriculum.

1978
The Curriculum Centre of the Education Department publishe, Curriculum Task Force Report 1978: A Study of Teacher Opinion on some Emergent Curriculum Related Issues.

The Education Department published Tasmanian Education: Next Decade, the report of the TEND (Tasmanian Education Next Decade) committee appointed to evaluate the state education system and make recommendations for future reform.

The Education Department published The Future of District Schools in Tasmania: report of the District Schools Committee to the Minister for Education.

1977
The Education Department published Secondary Education in Tasmania: A Review for the Education Department by the Committee on Secondary Education(Scott Report).

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The 1975 Context

1972
The Education Department published Higher School Certificate Examination and Assessment Procedures: A review.

1968
The Education Department published the report of the Committee set up to investigate the role of school in society, The School in Society. The report made broad recommendations on the organization of schools, teacher professionalism, educational programs, and led to significant reform of the Tasmania secondary school curriculum.

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Australian Capital Territory

1996-2005  |   1986-1995  |   1976-1985  |   Pre-1975  |  

1996 – 2005

2005
The Department of Education and Training launched the first phase of a new curriculum framework, Every Chance To Learn: Curriculum for ACT Schools P-10 Principles and Framework.

The Department of Education and Training published School Excellence: Improvement and achievement in ACT government schools in 2004.

2004
Legislation was passed consolidating the different Acts that had governed education in the ACT, Education Act 2004.

The Curriculum Renewal Taskforce released its report, Every Chance to Learn: Curriculum renewal evaluation report.

The Curriculum Renewal Taskforce released Every Chance to Learn: A curriculum renewal discussion paper.

The Government Schools Education Council released the report, Review of Government School Reporting: A review of ACT government school reporting processes with recommendations for improvement of reporting to parents and the broader community.

The Department of Education and Training published Planning framework: ACT vocational education and training.

The School improvement framework for achieving high standards in student learning, innovation and best practice in ACT government schools. was launched as part of the School Excellence Initiative.

The Department of Education and Training published Learning Technologies Plan for ACT Government Schools and Preschools 2004-2006.

2003
The Minister for Education, Katy Gallagher, launched The School Excellence Initiative: Achieving Excellence in ACT Government Schools.

2002
The Department of Education and Community Services published its vision for learning and teaching, Within Reach of Us All: ACT government schools plan 2002-2004.

2000
The Committee appointed to review school legislation in the ACT released its report, School Legislation in the ACT: Report to the ACT Minister for Education. The Committee recommended the establishment of a single Act for schooling in the ACT.

1998
The Department of Education and Community Services released Partnerships for Excellence: ACT Government schools plan 1998-2000, which set out the purposes, goals and priorities for schooling.

The Department of Education and Community Services published Literacy Matters: Preschool –Year 10: A literacy strategy.

1997
The Department of Education published The Across Curriculum Perspective Statements, which supplemented the 1994 ACT Curriculum Frameworks.

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1986 – 1995

1995
The Department of Education and Training released Education plan for ACT government schooling 1995-1997, which advocated greater emphasis on outcome-based education.

The Department of Education and Training published Framework for vocational education and training for 16 – 18 year olds in the ACT.

1994
The Department of Education and Training published Curriculum Frameworks, companion documents for the eight key learning areas outlined in the National Profiles.

1991
The ACT Schools Accrediting Agency became the ACT Board of Senior Secondary Studies.

1989
With the attainment of self-government in the ACT, the Schools Authority was abolished and became the ACT Department of Education.

The Department of Education published research reporting on investigated assessment practices in senior secondary colleges in the ACT, Student Assessment Project in Secondary Colleges of the Australian Capital Territory.

The Schools Authority published Community Schools for Canberra, 1989-2000: Final Report.

1987
The Schools Authority published Community Schools for Canberra, 1989-2000: A draft plan for matching school accommodation with student numbers.

The Schools Authority published PEP Equals: A report of the Participation and Equity Programs in Canberra's public schools.

The report of the Ministerial Review of the ACT Schools Authority was released, A Management Review of the ACT Schools Authority.

1986
The Committee for the Review of Tertiary Entrance Score Calculations in the Australian Capital Territory released its report, Making Admission to Higher Education Fairer.

The Schools Authority published School Boards: Partnership and Participation, outlining guidelines for the constitution, function and operation of school boards.

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1976 – 1985

1985
The Schools Authority published a draft position paper, Future Directions in Curriculum, outlining current and future curriculum policy.

The Commonwealth Minister for Education, Susan Ryan, issued a discussion paper, A Proposal Concerning the Governance of ACT Government Schools.

In November the Schools Authority appointed a committee to review the calculation of tertiary entrance scores following concern about gender bias in the process.

1984
The Commonwealth Department of Education and Youth Affairs released Issues and Options: a discussion paper on the governance of ACT education.

The Schools Authority published Our Public Schools: Report to the Canberra Community, a booklet explicating ACT education policy and programs.

The Schools Authority released Proposed policy initiatives for 1984/85.

The Schools Authority published Shrink and Swim: A Handbook for high schools adapting the curriculum to declining enrolments. The report was prepared for the ACT Schools Authority as part of the ACT Choice and Diversity Project.

1983
The Schools Authority published Response of the Authority to the Report of the Committee of Review into the Impact of Radford College.

The report of the Committee of Review into the Impact of Radford College released its report, Schools for the ACT: How public? how private?

The Schools Authority published the report of the ACT Choice and Diversity Project, Maintaining Curriculum Choice in Secondary Schools with Declining Enrolments: General conclusions and report to Commonwealth Schools Commission.

The Schools Authority released the report of the Committee to Review Education in the ACT, The Challenge of Change: A Review of High Schools in the ACT.

The Schools Authority published Multicultural education ACT 1981: A report of the school curriculum development for multicultural education initiated in 1981 and funded by the Schools Commission Multicultural Education program.

1982
The Schools Authority published an overview of curriculum policy, Sources of Existing Curriculum Policy for Government Schools.

1981
The Schools Authority published the task force report, Review of Provisions for Children with Special Needs, as well as the companion document, Provisions for Educating Children with Special Needs.

The Schools Authority released the report of the Task Force Managing Contraction, Managing a Contracting School System: A Task Force Report to the Chief Education Officer.

The Schools Authority published and distributed to schools, Current Curriculum Practice in ACT Government Schools as part of a broad review of curriculum.

The Schools Authority released the position paper, School-based evaluation in ACT government schools.

The Schools Authority Taskforce for Managing Contraction released a discussion paper, Strategies for a Contracting School System.

1979
The Committee to Review the ACT Schools Accrediting Agency released its report, Certificates for Year 12 Students: A review of the ACT Schools Accrediting Agency.

The Schools Authority published the report, Inquiry into the ACT Year 10 Certificate.

1977
School based assessment was introduced into ACT schools.

The Curriculum Branch of the Schools Authority published Curriculum and Organisation Statements, ACT High Schools.

School boards in the Australian Capital Territory, was published by the School of Teacher Education as part of the School and Community Project funded by the Australian Schools Commission.

1976
The Schools Authority Ordinance was ratified.

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The 1975 Context

1975
The Interim Schools Authority published an information sheet, Secondary Colleges in the Australian Capital Territory.

The ACT Schools Accrediting Agency was established with responsibility for accreditation, assessment and certification in senior colleges.

1974
The Schools Authority took over responsibility for the public school system from the Department of Education in New South Wales.

The Interim ACT Schools Authority released for discussion and comment, Guidelines on Relationships within the Education System, outlining guidelines for relationships and responsibilities of and between the Authority and ACT schools.

1973
In November a statement was released outlining educational specifications of the Schools Authority, The Guiding Principles and Aims of the ACT Schools Authority.

The Interim ACT Schools Authority was established in October, based on the model recommended in the Hughes report.

The report of the Working Committee on College Proposals for the Australian Capital Territory, Secondary Education for Canberra (Campbell Report) was released. The report recommended the establishment of senior secondary colleges.

The report of the Assessment Panel on the ACT Education Authority, A Design for the Governance and Organisation of Education in the Australian Capital Territory (Hughes Report), recommended the establishment of a new educational authority for the ACT.

The Commonwealth Department of Education published An Education Authority for the ACT: A departmental paper.

1967
The working party to Report on an Independent Education Authority for the Australian Capital Territory the establishment of an independent Schools Authority released its report, Report on an Independent Education Authority for the Australian Capital Territory, (Currie Report). The report advocated the establishment of an autonomous educational authority and the formation of school councils.

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Northern Territory

1996-2005  |   1986-1995  |   1976-1985  |   Pre-1975  |  

1996 – 2005

2004
The report of the secondary education review was published, Report on Future Directions for Secondary Education in the Northern Territory(Ramsay Report). The report identified major challenges facing education in the NT and made recommendations for future reform, including more support for indigenous students and the development of a Teaching and Learning Framework.

2002
The Department of Employment, Education and Training published EsseNTial Learnings: NT Curriculum Framework.

In September, The Chief Minister, Clare Martin, and the Minister for Employment, Education and Training, Syd Stirling, announced a review into secondary education in the Northern Territory.

2000
The Department of Employment, Education and Training launched Indigenous Education Strategic Plan, a framework for implementing recommendations of the 1999 review of indigenous education, Learning Lessons.

1999
The Department of Education published Task Group Report: Highlights paper: Re-design of curriculum functions and review of assessment & certification.

English as a Second Language Policy: Transition – year 12 was released.

The report of the indigenous education review was released, Learning Lessons: An independent review of indigenous education in the Northern Territory. The report made recommendations to the NT Department of Education on how to devise better educational outcomes (Collins Review).

The Department of Education published Schools our focus: shaping Territory education.

1998
The NT Board of Studies published Common Curriculum Statement: Transition to year 10.

The Board of Studies published Outcomes education and outcomes profiling in NT Schools: question and answer guide for students and parents.

The Board of Studies published Australian Indigenous Languages Policy: Policy and Guidelines.

The Board of Studies published Common Assessment and Reporting Statement: Preschool to Senior Secondary.

The NT Board of Studies published Common Curriculum Statement: Transition to year 10.

1997
The NT Board of Studies published Northern Territory Outcomes Profiles for

The Board of Studies published Northern Territory Outcomes Profile: First Draft for Consultation: Transition to Year 10.

The Board of Studies issued Gender Equity in Education Policy and supporting documents.

The Board of Studies published Australian Indigenous Languages Policy: Curriculum policy and implementation guidelines.

1996
The Board of Studies published Key Competencies in Northern Territory Schools: Descriptions and Levels.

The Board of Studies published Key Competencies in Northern Territory Schools: Information Booklet.

The Board of Studies published A curriculum Framework for Present & Future Lifestyles. (Special Education)

The Board of Studies issued Revised Special Education Policy: Provision for Students with disabilities and impairments.

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1986 – 1995

1994
The Department of Education(??) released the policy statement, Guidelines for the implementation of policy for the education of gifted and talented students in Northern Territory schools and published the companion document, Identification of gifted & talented students in Northern Territory Schools.

The Board of Studies released the policy statement, Provision for Students with Disabilities in Northern Territory schools.

The Department of Education published Partners in Education: Parent policy.

1993
The NT Board of Studies published Common Curriculum Statement.

1992
The NT Board of Studies published Aboriginal Students Achievement in the Northern Territory.

The NT Board of Studies published Common Curriculum Statement.

The Board of Studies issued Revised Special Education Policy and Guidelines: Provision for students with disabilities and impairments in Northern Territory schools.

The Secondary Education Review Committee published Continuity and Change: A review of secondary education in the Northern Territory.

1991
National Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander education policy: the Northern Territory strategic plan, was released.

The Curriculum and Assessment Division of the Department of Education published Aboriginal Schools Curriculum Materials Program.

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1976 – 1985

1984
The Northern Territory Board of Studies was established.

The Department of Education published Core Curriculum T-10.

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The 1975 Context

1975
Recommendations concerning bilingual education in the Northern Territory, Parliamentary Paper No. 329 (O'Grady and Hale Report), was released.

1964
Report of an investigation into the Curriculum and Teaching Methods used in Aboriginal Schools in the Northern Territory (Watts and Gallagher Report), was released.

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National

1996-2005  |   1986-1995  |   1976-1985  |   Pre-1975  |  

1996 – 2005

2005
Statements of Learning for English were endorsed by MCEETYA and published by the Curriculum Corporation.

2004
The Schools Assistance (Learning Together–Achievement Through Choice and Opportunity) Act 2004 was introduced. The Actrequired schools and school authorities to make a commitment to participate in a wide range of nationally driven initiatives.

The House of Representatives Standing Committee on Education prepared the report Learning to Work: Report on the Inquiry into Vocational Education in Schools.

2003
The proposal to develop statements of learning for the four curriculum domains for mathematics, science, civics and English was accepted at the MCEETYA meeting in July. The statements built on a previous ‘curriculum mapping exercise’ which identified areas of overlap and difference in the official curricula of the States.

MCEETYA published the research report Curriculum Provision in the Australian States and Territories which reviewed the consistency of curriculum provision across the country.

2001
The Australian Council of Deans of Education published the report New Learning: A Charter for Australian Education.

2000
HREOC published Recommendations: National inquiry into rural and remote education and School Communities: National inquiry into rural and remote education.

The Department of Education Science and Training published Learning for the Knowledge Society: An Education and Training Plan for the Information Economy.

1999
The Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the 21st Century was released following a meeting between State, Territory and Commonwealth Ministers of Education in April.

1998
MCEETYA released a Discussion paper which reviewed The Hobart Declaration (1989) and provided a set of new draft goals for public discussion and comment.

1997
The Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs published the report Discovering Democracy: Civics and Citizenship Education.

1996
The report Language Teachers: The Pivot of Policy was published by the Australian Language and Literacy Council. The report argued that Australian education systems and policies were failing to deliver any worthwhile proficiency in languages.

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1986 – 1995

1995
The National Review of Education for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples: Final Report was published by the Department of Education Employment and Training.

1994
The Schools Council published the discussion paper The Role of Schools in the Vocational Preparation of Australia’s Senior Secondary Students.

1993
National Profiles and Statements for the agreed learning areas were finalised but their compulsory adoption was rejected by all states in July.

The Australian Education Council (AEC), the Council of Ministers of Vocational Education, Employment and Training (MOVEET) and the Youth Ministers Council (YMC) were amalgamated to form the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA).

The Schools Council published Pathways for Post-Compulsory Students.

The Department of Employment, Education and Training published Retention and Participation in Australian Schools 1967-1992.

1992
The Australian Education Council published the report Key Competencies: Report of the Committee to advise the Australian Education Council and Ministers of Vocational Education, Employment and Training on Employment-related Key Competencies for Postcompulsory Education and Training (Mayer report).

The National Board of Employment, Education and Training published the report Curriculum Initiatives.

1991
The Australian Education Council organised the proposed national curriculum into eight Learning Areas (English, mathematics, science, studies of society and the environment, LOTE, the arts, technology, health) and work commenced on describing these in terms of Statements and Profiles.

The Australian Education Council published the report Young People’s Participation in Post-compulsory Education and Training: Report of the Australian Education Council Review Committee (Finn Review) which recommended the development of a set of employment-related ‘key competencies’ for effective work participation.

1990
The Curriculum Corporation was established to facilitate activities in curriculum development, publish materials and provide curriculum information.

The Ministerial Council of Vocational Education, Employment and Training (MOVEET) was established.

The first National Report on Australian Schooling was published by the Australian Education Council.

1989
The Hobart Declaration on Schooling was released by the Australian Education Council. The Declaration set out an agreement on ten national goals for schooling and announced an intention to establish a national curriculum agency, commence a process of national collaborative curriculum development and introduce an annual national report on schooling.

The Curriculum Corporation was established through the merging of the Curriculum Development Corporation and the Australian Schools Cataloguing Information Service.

The Curriculum Development Centre published the report The Challenge of Retention: A study of retention in 35 schools.

The Department of Employment, Education and Training published the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Policy.

1988
The Curriculum Development Centre published Schooling in Rural Australia.

The report Strengthening Australia’s Schools: A Consideration of the Focus and Content of Schoolingwas published. This report invited the cooperation of the States and Territories in developing and implementing a national effort to strengthen Australia's schools.

1987
The Schools Commission published In the National Interest: Secondary Education and Youth Policy in Australia. The report emphasized the importance of a continuing core curriculum but also highlighted the need for curriculum that would equip students with practical skills for the workplace.

The Schools Commission published the report National Policy for the Education of Girls in Australian Schools which outlined the first national policy for Australian schooling.

The National Policy on Languages was published.

The Commonwealth Schools Commission was abolished.

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1976 – 1985

1985
The report Quality of Education in Australia: Report of the Review Committee (Karmel Report) was published.

The Commonwealth Schools Commission published Quality and Equity: Commonwealth Specific Purposes for Australian Schools.

The Curriculum Development Centre published McGaw and Hannan’s report Certification in Upper Secondary Education.

1984
The Commonwealth Schools Commission published the reports Commonwealth Standards for Australian Schools and The English as a Second Language (ESL) Factors and Index Study: Final Report.

The report Girls and Tomorrow: The Challenge for Schools was published by the Schools Commission.

The Report on a National Language Policy was published by the Senate Standing Committee on Education and the Arts.

1982
The Schools Commission developed the Participation and Equity Program (PEP) to increase retention rates.

The Educational Research and Development Committee published the report National Assessment in Australia: An Evaluation of the Australian Studies in the Student Performance Program.

1981
The Curriculum Development Centre was absorbed into the Commonwealth Department of Education.

The Senate Standing Committee on Education and the Arts (Chaired by G.S. Davidson) published its report Preparation for the Workforce.

1980
The Schools Commission published, Schooling for 15 and 16 Year Olds, a report which suggested the need for a more ‘adaptive’ curriculum to suit the needs of all students.

The Curriculum Development Centre published the discussion paper Core Curriculum for Australian Schools which, in addition to learning processes and environments, nominated nine areas of knowledge and experience.

1979
The Committee of Inquiry into Education and Training (Chaired by B. William) published the report Education, Training and Employment.

1978
The Report of the Committee to Review Post-arrival Programs and Services for Migrants (Galbally Report) was published.

1976
The House of Representatives Select Committee on Specific Learning Difficulties (Chaired by A.G. Cadman) published Learning Difficulties in Children and Adults.

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The 1975 Context

1975
The Schools Commission published the report Girls, Schools and Society. The report provided the first comprehensive review of the position of girls and schooling in Australia and included recommendations to improve opportunities for girls.

1974
The Curriculum Development Centre was established as an independent statutory body.

The Australian Committee on Technical and Further education published TAFE in Australia. Report on Needs in Technical and Further Education (Kangan report).

1973
The Commonwealth Schools Commission was established to advise the Commonwealth Government on education policy.

The Schools Commission published the report Schools in Australia (Karmel Report).

1972
The Federal Minister was made a full member of the Australian Education Council for the first time.

1960
W.R. Dovey’s report Progress and Assimilation of Migrant Children in Australia was published by the Commonwealth Immigrant Advisory Council.

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Curriculum Policy and Major Education Reports

Identifying Key Curriculum Documents

A central intent of the project was to examine the agendas influencing curriculum policy at each of these mid-decade points: 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2005. One of the ways we have sought to illuminate this has been to identify key documents that capture something of the curriculum culture in each state. Lists of major reports and policy documents were compiled and sent to experts in each state for feedback on their significance. A small number of documents for each state produced in the years leading up to these mid-decade points were then selected.

A total of 65 documents across the six states were identified as key curriculum documents and summaries were produced for each period and document. Although this represents only a fraction of the total number of education reports and policy documents produced across Australia over four decades, it does provide something of a snapshot of curriculum concerns across the states and over time. We have found this material to be a useful for getting a sense of curriculum change across the Australian states and are making the summary material available here as a resource for others.

To access the lists of documents selected, click on the links above for each state. Overviews of the documents for each period by state may then be accessed by clicking on the links under each year and from there more detailed summaries of the individual documents may be accessed by clicking on the links under each overview. A table of the selected documents by year and state is also available.

As with other parts of the project, in compiling this material we recognise the difficulties in examining state differences, not the least of which is the different forms that curriculum policy documents take and the multiple influences that come to bear on the development of curriculum. Nevertheless, we do hope that this material will be useful for others .

We thank all those who assisted with our selection through providing invaluable feedback and recommendations. We also acknowledge the work done by Katie Wright, Glenn Savage, Sean Byrne and Chinh Nguyen in developing and finalising the lists and summaries.

Victoria – Key Documents

1975

Victoria. Committee on State Education in Victoria (1960). Report of the Committee on State Education in Victoria (Ramsay Report). Melbourne: Government Printer.

Report of the Committee on State Education in Victoria (Ramsay Report) – 1960

  • Provides an historical overview of State Education in Victoria.
  • Overviews the ‘aims and objects’ of State Education.
  • Advances a democratic view of schooling and emphasises equality of opportunity.
  • Notes that schooling should exercise and develop memory and mental ability with knowledge that is useful and/or has a direct relevance to post-school life.
  • Stresses individual difference and the importance of the provision of education as appropriate for diverse capabilities of students.
  • Identifies the ‘basic characteristics developed in schooling as: Communication, Number, General Knowledge, and Habits of Thought and Action.
  • Reviews the current system including administration, schools and teaching.
  • Identifies problems of the current system including education problems and material problems.
  • Makes broad-ranging recommendations relating to the administration and organisation of schools and services, teacher and teacher training, finance, curriculum, community involvement and assessment.

Full report available

1985

Victoria. Education Department (1983-4). Curriculum Development and Planning in Victoria,Ministerial Paper No. 6. Melbourne: Education Department of Victoria.
Victoria. Ministerial Review of Postcompulsory Schooling (1985). Report of the Ministerial Review of Postcompulsory Schooling (Blackburn Report). Melbourne: Ministerial Review of Postcompulsory Schooling.
Victoria. Education Department (1985). Curriculum Frameworks P-12: An introduction. Melbourne: Curriculum Branch, Education Department of Victoria.

Curriculum Development and Planning in Victoria: Ministerial Paper No. 6 – 1984

  • Promotes 'Access and Success'.
  • Notes that rising retention rates have resulted in a more diverse student population creating an emergent need for a curriculum that can cater to a more diverse student population.
  • Identifies seven learning areas.
  • Recommends curriculum reform and renewal to meet the needs of a rapidly changing society.
  • Recognises disadvantage and attempts to find ways of overcoming disadvantage.
  • Promotes school-based curriculum development and decision making.
  • Promotes curriculum that is relevant to all students and relevant to the contemporary world.
  • Emphasises the importance of school-community partnerships and sequential learning.
  • Promotes non-competitive assessment and argues that student achievements should be monitored but not by comparison with others (compulsory level) and classrooms should be mixed-ability.

Full report available

Ministerial Review of Post compulsory Schooling (Blackburn Report) – 1985

  • Recommends the introduction of a single two year certificate marking the end of secondary schooling to be called the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE).
  • Recommends the establishment of the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Board.
  • Brings together general and vocational education into common Year 12 certificate.
  • Argues that changes in educational provision are important to producing 'knowledgeable, skilful and caring citizens'.
  • Recommends curriculum reform and renewal to meet the needs of rapidly a changing society.
  • Recognises disadvantage and attempts to find ways of overcoming disadvantage.
  • Promotes a broad, general curriculum relevant to all students.

Full report available

Curriculum Frameworks P-12: An Introduction – 1985

  • Promotes 'Access and Success' and presents a democratic view of schooling.
  • Recommends curriculum reform and renewal to meet the needs of rapidly changing society.
  • Recognises disadvantage and attempts to find ways of overcoming disadvantage.
  • Promotes school-based curriculum development.
  • Promotes curriculum that is relevant to all students and relevant to the contemporary world.
  • Emphasises the importance of ‘balance’ in the curriculum.
  • Promotes the idea of an integrated curriculum and integrated approaches to learning.
  • Promotes non-competitive assessment and argues that student achievements should be monitored but not by comparison with others (compulsory level) and classrooms should be mixed-ability.
  • Emphasises the role of students taking responsibility for their learning, including self-evaluation and the importance of developing self-awareness.
  • Further elaborates on the idea of a ‘curriculum framework’ raised in Ministerial Paper No. 6.

Full report available

1995

Victoria. Ministry of Education (1986). Implementing Ministerial Paper No. 6. Melbourne: Ministry of Education.
Victoria. Ministry of Education (1988). The School Curriculum and Organisation Framework, P-12. Melbourne: Schools Division, Ministry of Education.
Victoria. Board of Studies (1995). Curriculum and Standards Framework (CSF). Melbourne: Board of Studies.
Victoria. Board of Studies (1995). Using the CSF: An introduction. Melbourne: Board of Studies.

Implementing Ministerial Paper No. 6 – 1986

  • Intended as a teacher/school resource that is essentially concerned with the ‘how’ of achieving the policy principles of access and success outlined in Ministerial Paper No. 6.
  • Stresses the importance of an inclusive curriculum; student participation; parent participation; mixed-ability classrooms; non-competitive assessment; and attention to issues of race, class and gender.

Full report available

P-12 Curriculum and Organisation Framework – 1988

  • Designed as a support document for schools in developing curriculum and an overview to nine other documents which deal with each learning area for the new framework of P-12 Curriculum.
  • Elaborates on the guiding principles of Ministerial Paper No. 6.
  • Stresses the importance of an inclusive curriculum; student participation; parent participation; mixed-ability classrooms; non-competitive assessment; and social justice.

Full report available

Curriculum and Standards Framework – 1995

  • Identifies eight Key Learning Areas: The Arts, English, Health and Physical Education, Languages Other Than English, Mathematics, Science, Studies of Society and the Environment, and Technology.
  • Consists of eight booklets, one for each Key Learning Area. Each booklet outlines strands and learning outcomes for each of the Levels from 1 to 6/7.

Full report available

Using the CSF: An Introduction – 1995

  • Part of a series of booklets designed to assist with the implementation of the CSF.
  • Primarily includes practical advice to schools on how to use the CSF for curriculum planning and review.
  • Provides initial advice on integrating the curriculum and on assessment and reporting.

Full report available

2005

Victoria. Department of Education and Training (1997). Enhancing their Futures: Report of the Committee of Review on the Victorian Certificate of Education (Dow VCE Review). Melbourne: Department of Education and Training.
Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (2000). Curriculum and Standards Framework II (CSF II): an overview P-10. Melbourne: Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority.
Victoria. Department of Education and Training. (2003). Blueprint for Government Schools: Future Directions in the Victorian Government School System. Melbourne: Department of Education and Training.
Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (2005). Victorian Essential Learning Standards: Overview. Melbourne: Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority.

Enhancing Their Futures: Report of the Committee of Review on the Victorian Certificate of Education (Dow VCE Review) – 1997

  • Argues for constant monitoring of curriculum and assessment.
  • Notes the need to revise the VCE to reflect social, economic and technological change.
  • Demonstrates a concern with equity (but not central as in the Blackburn Report).
  • Emphasises competencies and skills and the need for greater integration of VET in the VCE.

Full report available

Curriculum and Standards Framework II: An Overview P-10 – 2000

  • Concerns a P-10 Curriculum Framework comprising eight Key Learning Areas: The Arts, English (including ESL), Health and Physical Education, LOTE, Mathematics, Science, Studies of Society and the Environment, and Technology.
  • Defines major and knowledge and skills within strands and levels for each Key Learning Area (for each strand there are six levels).

Full report available

Blueprint for Government Schools: Future Directions in the Victorian Government School System – 2003

  • Policy document that sets out future directions for government schools.
  • Promotes quality education as a right of all young people.
  • Acknowledges differences in learning styles.
  • Continues the policy of school administration based on the principles of self-management.

Full report available

Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) – 2005

  • Arose from Blueprint, Flagship Strategy 1: Student Learning – to identify a broad framework of ‘essential learnings’ for all Victorian students.
  • Identifies three core components of the curriculum as essential to the development of flexible, adaptable learners who can respond to change: physical, personal and social development and growth; discipline based learning; and interdisciplinary learning.
  • Identifies three stages of learning in the Years P-10 and focuses on developing expert learners.
  • Retains the six level structure of the CSF but replaces the eight Key Learning Areas.

Full report available

NSW – Key Documents

1975

New South Wales. Committee Appointed to Survey Secondary Education in New South Wales (1957) Report of the Committee Appointed to Survey Secondary Education in New South Wales (Wyndham Report). Sydney: Government Printer.

Report of the Committee Appointed to Survey Secondary Education in New South Wales (Wyndham Report) – 1957

  • Encompasses proposals for a system of general secondary education of four years for alladolescents in comprehensive schools.
  • Discusses eight objectives of education including: Health, Mental Skills and Knowledge, Capacity for Critical Thought, Readiness for Group Membership, The Arts of Communication, Vocation, Leisure and Spiritual Values.
  • Recommends a 'common core' of the curriculum: English; Social Studies; Science; Mathematics; Art; Crafts; Physical and Health Education; Religious Education.
  • Recommends the abolition of entry examinations for high schools.
  • Recommends the establishment of the Secondary Schools Board.
  • Recommends the introduction of the Higher School Certificate and the School Certificate.
  • Recommends the extension of secondary schooling from five to six years, with external examinations at the end of the fourth year (School Certificate) and the sixth year (Higher School Certificate).

Full report available

1985

New South Wales. Parliament. Legislative Assembly. Select Committee upon the School Certificate (1981) Report from the Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly upon the School Certificate (McGowan Report). Sydney: Government Printer.
New South Wales. Board of Senior School Studies (1982) Discussion Paper: Curriculum Review Years 11-12. Sydney: Board of Senior School Studies.
New South Wales. Department of Education (1984) Future Directions of Secondary Education: A Report (Swan & McKinnon Report). Sydney: Department of Education.

Report from the Select Committee Report of the Legislative Assembly upon the School Certificate (McGowan Report) – 1981

  • Discusses problems with the School Certificate and recommends its abolition and replacement with a new credential of greater value.
  • Recommends that the new credential be called the Certificate of Secondary Education.
  • Recommends that all secondary school courses should be offered on a semester basis.
  • Recommends the abolition of zoning.
  • Endorses ability-grouping of students.

Full report available

Discussion Paper: Curriculum Review: Years 11-12 – 1982

  • Forms part of the Board of Senior School Studies ‘total review of curriculum’.
  • Discusses the need for a reform of the senior secondary curriculum.
  • Outlines a possible model for curriculum development for Years 11 and 12.

Full report available

Future Directions of Secondary Education: A Report (Swan and McKinnon Report) – 1984

  • Sets out proposals for the broad direction of secondary education.
  • Outlines ten principles for the further development of secondary education.
  • Identifies gaps and omissions in the senior secondary curriculum and suggests that attention be given to what constitutes ‘general education’ for Years 11 and 12.
  • Recommends the establishment of the Board of Secondary Education to replace the Secondary Schools Board and the Board of Senior School Studies.
  • Recommends that the School Certificate be replaced by a Certificate of Secondary Education.
  • Recommends stronger connections between theoretical and applied studies.

Full report available

1995

New South Wales. Ministry of Education and Youth Affairs (1989) Schools renewal: a strategy to revitalise schools within the New South Wales state education system (Scott Report). Sydney: Management Review.
New South Wales. Committee of Review of New South Wales Schools (1989) Report of the Committee of Review of New South Wales Schools (Carrick Report). Sydney: The Committee.
New South Wales. Ministry of Education and Youth Affairs (1989) Excellence and Equity: New South Wales curriculum reform. A white paper on curriculum reform in New South Wales schools issued by Terry Metherell MP, Minister for Education and Youth Affairs. Sydney: Ministry of Education and Youth Affairs.
New South Wales. Review of Outcomes and Profiles in New South Wales Schooling (1995) Focusing on learning: Report of the Review of Outcomes and Profiles in New South Wales Schooling (Eltis Report). Sydney: Department of Training and Education Co-ordination.

Schools Renewal: A Strategy to Revise Schools within the New South Wales State Education System (Scott Review) – 1989

  • Involves a management review of New South Wales Schools.
  • Proposes significant devolution from Head Office to Regions and schools.
  • Primarily concerned with the organisation of schools and resources.
  • Proposes that curriculum design be streamlined and accelerated, better balanced and coordinated.

Full report available

Report of the Committee of Review of New South Wales Schools (Carrick Report) – 1989

  • Provides an overview of the existing school education and a ‘blueprint’ for the future.
  • Proposes the replacement of Board of Secondary Education with a new Board of Studies.
  • Recommends a new Education Act, and the replacement of the Ministry of Education and Youth Affairs with a new Office of Education and Youth Affairs.
  • Recommends six Learning areas for the compulsory years: English; Mathematics; Science and Technology; Human Society and its Environments; Personal Development, Health and Fitness; and Creative and Practical Arts.
  • Recommends a core curriculum based on ‘essential learning experiences’.

Full report available

Excellence and Equity: New South Wales Curriculum Reform – 1989

  • Outlines curriculum reforms around Key Learning Areas – six for primary schools and eight for secondary schools.
  • Does not support ‘unguided devolution to individual schools of responsibility for structure, content and coherence of the curriculum’ but does support the devolution of management responsibility.
  • Criticises the Board of Secondary Education's response to changing curriculum needs.
  • Stresses the importance of a broad general education and a core curriculum for all students.

Full report available

Focusing on Learning: Report of the Review of Outcomes and Profiles in New South Wales Schooling (Eltis Report) – 1995

  • Reviews Outcomes and Profiles in NSW.
  • Investigates the ‘quality of curriculum documents’ that had incorporated the National Profiles and the appropriateness of the implementation arrangements.
  • Makes recommendations for further action and review.
  • Identifies a number of problems that have arisen during implementation.
  • Makes 21 recommendations for further action and review, including that the Board no longer be required to incorporate the National Profiles directly into NSW syllabuses.

Full report available

2005

McGaw, B. (1997) Shaping their Future: Recommendations for reform of the Higher School Certificate (McGaw Report). Sydney: Department of Training and Education Co-ordination.
New South Wales. Board of Studies (1998) A Review of the HSC Assessment Program. Sydney: New South Wales Government.
New South Wales. Board of Studies (2002) K-10 curriculum framework. Sydney: Board of Studies.

Shaping their Future: Recommendations for Reform of the Higher School Certificate (McGaw Report) – 1997

  • Follows the green paper Their Future: Options for the Reform of the Higher School Certificate.
  • Includes 26 recommendations for reform: 1 in relation to the purpose of the HSC, 17 in relation to the curriculum, 6 in relation to assessment & reporting, 1 on selection for post-school destinations, and 1 relating to the membership of the Board of Studies.
  • Sets out aims and objectives in three broad groupings: knowledge and understanding, skills, and attitudes and values.
  • Recommends that the use of the 8 KLAs in the HSC be abandoned.

Full report available

A Review of the HSC Assessment Program – 1998

  • Follows the 1997 McGaw Report recommending changes to the HSC.
  • Examines the use of school-based assessment as part of HSC credentialling.
  • Discusses issues of validity and reliability.
  • Is based on extensive survey research (as well as some qualitative research) undertaken by the Board of Studies.
  • Recommends that the school-based assessment be retained as part of the HSC.

Full report available

K-10 Curriculum Framework – 2002

  • Sets out parameters for the compulsory years curriculum and outlines principles to guide the development and implementation of syllabuses.
  • Stresses the importance of consistency and coherence across the curriculum.
  • Outlines the principles which underpin syllabuses and syllabus development.
  • Acknowledges that learning should build on previous learning.
  • Identifies 12 ‘broad learning outcomes’.
  • Identifies as core ‘essential knowledge, skills and understanding, values and attitudes'.
  • Refers to eight key learning areas.
  • Nominates nine subjects that must be studies as part of the School Certificate.

Full report available

Queensland – Key Documents

1975

Queensland. Department of Education (1970). Public examinations for Queensland secondary school students: Report of the Committee Appointed to Review the system of Public Examinations for Queensland Secondary School Students and to make Recommendations for the Assessment of Students Achievements (Radford Report). Brisbane: Queensland Department of Education.

Public Examinations for Queensland Secondary Schools (Radford Report) – 1970

  • Reviews the system of public examinations for Queensland secondary school students.
  • Makes 47 specific recommendations for the assessment of students’ achievements.
  • Key recommendations include the abolition of the Junior and Senior Examinations, and its replacement by a system of moderated internal assessment.

Full report available

1985

Queensland. Board of Secondary School Studies (1978). A review of school-based assessment (ROSBA) in Queensland secondary schools: a report to the Queensland Board of Secondary Studies arising out of a consideration of the implications of the reports 'Schools under Radford' and 'Some consequences of the Radford scheme for schools, teachers and students in Queensland' and of the second report of the Board of Secondary School Studies Standing Committee for the Junior Certificate (Scott Report). Brisbane: Board of Secondary School Studies.
Queensland. Legislative Assembly (1980). Report of the select committee on education in Queensland (Ahern Report). Brisbane: Government Printer.
Queensland. Department of Education (1985) Education 2000: Issues and options for the future of Education in Queensland. A Discussion Paper. Brisbane: Department of Education.

Queensland – Key Documents – the 1985 Context

A Review of School-based Assessment (ROBSA) in Queensland Schools (Scott Report) – 1978

  • Involves a review of two prior reports, Schools under Radford (K. Fairbairn et al., 1976) and Some Consequences of the Radford Scheme for Schools, Teachers and Students in Queensland (W. J. Campbell et al., 1975).
  • Includes 36 major policy recommendations, as well as 60 supplementary recommendations.
  • Significant recommendations include the replacement of norm-based assessment procedures with competency-based assessment procedures, and the abolition of current moderation procedures with a system of subject accreditation.

Full report available

Report of the Select Committee on Education in Queensland (Ahern Report) – 1980

  • Includes six ‘interim’ (but in themselves definitive) reports, and a seventh ‘final’ report, of a wide-ranging review into all aspects of state education in Queensland.
  • The focus of the reports is on significant issues of the day: school-based assessment, the place of social studies and human relationships courses, literacy and numeracy, and post-secondary education.

Full report available

Education 2000. Issues and options for the future of Education in Queensland. A Discussion Paper – 1985

  • Based on a review of the organisational effectiveness and operational efficiency of the Department of Education.
  • Emphasises central themes of curriculum relevance and continuity from stage to stage and the responsiveness and flexibility of institutions in dealing with the demands placed upon them.
  • Submissions on the ideas set out in the paper were summarised and published in a report in the following year, on the basis of which 42 recommendations were made.

Full report available

1995

Queensland. Board of Secondary School Studies (1986-1988). Review of School Based Assessment (ROBSA): Discussion Papers. Brisbane: Board of Secondary Studies.
Queensland. Department of Education (1987). P-10 Curriculum Framework. Brisbane: Department of Education.
Viviani, N. (1990). The review of tertiary entrance in Queensland 1990: Report submitted to the Minister for Education (Viviani Report). Brisbane: Department of Education.
Queensland. Review of the Queensland School Curriculum (1994). Shaping the future: review of the Queensland school curriculum (Wiltshire Report). Brisbane: Government Printer.

Review of School Based Assessment (ROSBA): Discussion Papers – 1987

  • Includes a series of discussion papers (21 in total) that examine a number of issues pertinent to a system of criteria-referenced school-based assessment.

Full report available

P-10 Curriculum Framework – 1987

  • Outlines a framework for discussion purposes.
  • Provides a structure for curriculum design and development for P-10 at both system and school levels.
  • Emphasises a consistent approach to the provision of continuous learning experiences that is responsive to the needs of children.
  • Consists of five elements: policy; understanding individuals; content; worthwhile learning; and evaluation.

Full report available

The Review of Tertiary Entrance in Queensland 1990: Report submitted to the Minister for Education (Viviani Report) – 1990

  • Reviews procedures for tertiary admission in the wake of the abolition of the TE score.
  • Focuses on Year 12s, and includes recommendations for the institution of a new system.
  • Makes 10 recommendations for the introduction of a new system, including the establishment of a new regulatory body (TEPA) and new methods for university selection.
  • Focuses on lifelong learning.

Full report available

Shaping the Future: review of the Queensland school curriculum (Wiltshire Report) – 1994

  • Reviews curriculum development, management and delivery in response to broad terms of reference.
  • Includes guiding principles that should underpin the curriculum, and recommendations for enhancement of the current situation.
  • The focus is on 'a P-12 school-based curriculum which is knowledge referenced, based on a shared Charter of Values, futures oriented, dynamic and capable of continuous adaptation'.

Full report available

2005

Queensland Studies Authority. (2001). Years 1–10 Curriculum Framework for Education Queensland Schools. Brisbane: Queensland Studies Authority.
Queensland. Department of Education (2002). The Senior Certificate: A New Deal. Brisbane: Education Queensland and the Board of Senior Secondary School Studies.
Queensland. Department of the Premier and Cabinet (2002). Queensland the Smart State: ducation and Training Reforms for the Future. Brisbane: Department of the Premier and Cabinet.
Queensland. Department of Education and the Arts (2005). Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Framework (QCAR). Brisbane: Department of Education and the Arts.

Years 1-10 Curriculum Framework for Education Queensland Schools – 2001

  • Policy statement defining the approach to core learnings and associated pedagogy, assessment and reporting required for Years 1-10.
  • Links 'system-wide requirements to syllabuses developed by the Queensland School Curriculum Council'.

Full report available

The Senior Certificate: A New Deal – 2002

  • Recommends reform of the Senior Certificate to maximise the number of young people completing Year 12.
  • Includes 72 specific recommendations covering eight broad areas.
  • Emphasises extending the range of Worthwhile Learnings to be recognised by the Senior Certificate; flexible entry and exit points with variable rates of progression; achievement of a threshold of learning as the criterion for the Certificate rather than time; that students enter into formal agreements on their learning plans; that learning be managed under the auspices of a school; and mentoring for at-risk students.

Full report available

Queensland the Smart State: Education and Training Reforms for the Future – 2002

  • Outlines intended Government reforms in education and training, premised on the necessity of Year 12 or a substantial vocational qualification for all young people.
  • Stresses the need for flexibility in education and training systems, legislated compulsion to achieve a higher retention rate, new approaches to preschool and middle years of schooling, and provision of tangible support for young people.
  • Adopts many of the recommendations of the Pitman report.

Full report available

Queensland Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting (QCAR) Framework – 2005

  • Provides a framework for new arrangements in curriculum, assessment and reporting for P-10, a key component of the Smart State strategy of 2005.
  • Focuses on clear definition of essential learnings, support of every day assessment practices and provision of appropriate reports. A key innovation is the introduction of state wide assessment in Years 4, 6 and 9.

Full report available

South Australia – Key Documents

1975

South Australia. Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia (1971). Education in South Australia: Report of the Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia, 1969-1970 (Karmel Report). Adelaide: Government Printer.

Education in South Australia. Report of the Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia 1969-1970 (Karmel Report) – 1971

  • Reviews and makes recommendations on the organisation of the Education Department and the means by which curricula and teaching methods can be kept under continuing review.
  • Focuses on the purposes of the educational system, and its structure and organisation.
  • Recommends changes which 'are intended to reflect six qualities of an educational system on which we place high value' including: a non-authoritarian approach to educational matters; a concern for the individual child; the equality of educational opportunities; a diversity of educational institutions; a decentralisation of decision-making; and the opening-up of the educational system to a variety of ideas.

1985

South Australia. Committee of Enquiry into Year 12 Examinations in South Australia (1978). Report of the Committee of Enquiry into Year 12 Examinations in South Australia (Jones Report). Adelaide: Education Department of South Australia.
South Australia. Education Department (1981). Into the 80s: Our Schools and their Purposes. Adelaide: Government Printer.
South Australia. Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia (1982). Education and Change in South Australia: Report of the Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia (Keeves Report). Adelaide: Education Department of South Australia.

Report of the Committee of Enquiry into Year 12 Examinations in South Australia (Jones Report) – 1978

  • Reports on the current system of assessment and certification at Year 12 and includes 19 recommendations.
  • Discusses in detail topics including the use and misuse of Matriculation examinations, their effect on the curriculum, and the need for a revised system of certification at Year 12 level.

Full report available

Into the 80s. Our schools and their purposes – 1981

  • An Education Department policy document stating in general terms the aims and purposes of the Education Department.
  • Outlines guidelines for the development of school programmes.
  • Concerns policy statements that outline the educationalframework for the operation of government schools.
  • States that 'The intention of this document is to provide is to provide an appropriate balance between central direction and local needs.'

Full report available

Education and Change in South Australia (Keeves Report) – 1982

  • Examines the educational system of South Australia.
  • Pays particular attention to ensuring the relevance of curricula, evaluation, and rationalisation of resources.

Full report available

1995

South Australia. Enquiry into Immediate Post-Compulsory Education (1988). Report of the Enquiry into Immediate Post-Compulsory Education (Gilding Report). Adelaide: Education Department of South Australia.
South Australia, Education Department (1989). Educating for the 21st Century: A Charter for Public Schooling in South Australia. Adelaide: Government Printer.
South Australia. Department for Education and Children's Services (1995). Curriculum Statements and Profiles Implementation Support Plan 1995-1997. Adelaide: Department for Education and Children’s Services.

Report of the Enquiry into Immediate Post-compulsory Education (Gilding Report) Volume 1 – 1988

  • A report into the set of arrangements under which young people qualify and are selected to enter higher education, and the total framework for the immediate post-compulsory education years.
  • The main recommendations concern the establishment of an integrated curriculum pattern to cater for the increasing numbers undertaking post-compulsory schooling, and improved articulation between post-compulsory schooling and employment, TAFE study and higher education.

Full report available

Educating for the 21st Century. A Charter for Public Schooling in South Australia – 1990

  • A statement of the ideals and aims held for the children who will leave school in the 21st century.
  • Makes statements regarding the commitments made by the Education Department, the required areas of study for all students, the essential skills and understandings to be achieved and expected student outcomes.

Full report available

Curriculum Statements and Profiles Implementation Support Plan 1995-1997 – 1995

  • Outlines a plan for coordinating the implementation of the statements and profiles of the eight nationally agreed areas of study.
  • Sets out plans in practical terms to plan, program and implement curriculum change, with details on sources of support, areas of responsibility and development of materials, and desired outcomes of initiatives.

Full report available

2005

South Australia. Department for Education and Children's Services (1997). Foundations for the Future: a declaration for South Australian public education and children's services. Adelaide: Department for Education and Children’s Services.
South Australia. Department of Education, Training and Employment (2001). South Australian Curriculum, Standards and Accountability Framework: General Introduction. Adelaide: Senior Secondary Assessment Board of South Australia.
South Australia. Department of Education, Training and Employment (2005). South Australian Curriculum, Standards and Accountability Framework: The Required Elements. Adelaide: Department of Education, Training and Employment.

Foundation for the Future: A declaration for South Australian public education and children’s services – 1997

  • Involves a declaration of the core values underpinning public education and children’s services in South Australia.
  • Makes explicit five strategic directions essential for preparing children and young people for a successful future.

Full report available

South Australian Curriculum, Standards and Accountability Framework: General Introduction – 2001

  • Involves a Curriculum Framework which provides the basis for the design of learning and assessment programs.
  • Comprises curriculum 'Key Ideas and Outcomes' for birth to Year 12.
  • Focuses on essential learnings, coherence in the curriculum, enterprise and vocational education, and equity and standards.
  • Outlines five essential learning areas – futures, identity, interdependence, thinking, and communicating.

Full report available

South Australian Curriculum, Standards and Accountability Framework: The Required Elements – 2005

  • Provides a 'snapshot' of the required parts of the SACSA Framework, a curriculum policy for planning and monitoring learner achievement in DECS preschools and schools.
  • Provides a reference summary of all the Key Ideas, Developmental Learning Outcomes and Outcomes for each Learning Area at each Standard.

Full report available

Western Australia – Key Documents

1975

Western Australia. Committee on Secondary Education (1969). Secondary Education in Western Australia (Dettman Report). Perth, Ministry of Education.

Secondary Education in Western Australia (Dettman Report) – 1969

  • Report of the Committee on Secondary Education, appointed by the Minister for Education (Hon. E. H. M. Lewis, MLA) in June 1967.
  • Aims to investigate and report on the future organisation of secondary education in Western Australia.
  • Outlines recommendations for the re-organisation of secondary education.
  • Recommends that external examinations (the Junior and Leaving examinations) should be discontinued and replaced by internal school assessments and standardised tests.
  • Recommends that a Board of Secondary Education should be established to exercise a general overview of the curricula, to maintain standards of all secondary schools in W.A., and to be responsible for the award of a Certificate of Secondary Education.

Full report available

1985

Western Australia. Ministerial Working Party on School Certification and Tertiary Admissions Procedures (1981). Review of Educational Standards in Lower Secondary Schools in Western Australia (Priest Report). Perth: Government Printer.
Western Australia. Committee of Inquiry into Education in Western Australia (1984). Education in Western Australia: Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Education in Western Australia (Beazley Report). Perth: Department of Education.
Western Australia. Ministerial Working Party on School Certification and Tertiary Admissions Procedures (1984). Assessment in the Upper Secondary School in Western Australia (McGaw Report). Perth: Government Printer.

Review of Educational Standards in Lower Secondary Schools (Priest Report) – 1981

  • Report of the panel appointed to review educational standards in lower-secondary schools in Western Australia. The panel were required to review school practices in the first three years of secondary education and to consider the performance of students in the core subjects, with a particular emphasis on poorly performing students studying at ‘Basic level’.
  • Responds to widespread criticisms of basic standards in Year 10 school students as the result of the implementation of recommendations made in the Dettman Report (1969), which included the discontinuance of the Junior Certificate and the introduction of the Achievement Certificate.
  • Offers several short and long term recommendations and suggestions for the performance of students in lower-secondary schools in W.A.

Full report available

Education in Western Australia: Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Education in Western Australia (Beazley Report) – 1984

  • Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Education in Western Australia, chaired by Mr Kim E. Beazley.
  • Examines 14 wide-reaching terms of reference concerning: the nature and relevance of the secondary education curriculum; certification and tertiary selection procedures; issues regarding attracting and retaining teaching staff; community participation in schooling; and the extent to which schools cater for various ‘special groups’ of students.
  • Contains 272 recommendations.
  • Proposes major changes to the lower and upper secondary curriculums, including the introduction of seven broad curriculum components, a unit approach, greater breadth and flexibility, and greater emphasis on vocational and life skills.
  • Proposes a new curriculum structure for courses in Years 11 and 12, as well as changes to the certification of student achievement procedures.
  • Places an emphasis on examining issues relating to secondary education, however, also examines, and makes several recommendations with respect to, primary and TAFE education.

Full report available

Assessment in the Upper Secondary School in Western Australia (McGaw Report) – 1984

  • Compiled by the Working Party on School Certification and Tertiary Admissions Procedures, which was chaired by Barry McGaw.
  • Reports on current procedures for the admission of students into tertiary institutions in Western Australia and the influence of those procedures on the educational programmes offered in secondary schools.
  • Offers 22 key recommendations for proposed changes to: the breadth and structure of the upper-school curriculum; methods of assessment and certification of achievement; and tertiary admissions procedures.
  • Recommends administrative changes to facilitate and monitor the proposed changes.

Full report available

1995

Western Australia. Ministry of Education (1987). Better Schools in Western Australia: A programme for improvement (Pearce Better Schools Report). Perth: Ministry of Education.
Western Australia. Ministry of Education (1989). Upper secondary certification and tertiary entrance: Review of upper secondary certification and tertiary entrance procedures commissioned by the Minister for Education in Western Australia (Andrich Report). Perth: Ministry for Education.
Western Australia. Review of Education Employment and Training (1993). Review of Education and Training (Vickery Report). Perth: Ministry of Education.

Better Schools in Western Australia (Pearce Better Schools Report) – 1987

  • Glossy report prepared by Western Australia’s newly established Ministry of Education as a follow-up to the review of the education system by the Western Australian Government Functional Review Committee.
  • Proposes a new structure for the Schools Division in relation to a climate of social change and changing government/community needs and priorities.
  • Outlines an overall Rationale for Change, followed by New Directions for Schools that include increased financial and administrative responsibility and authority at the individual school level, the creation of School Districts, and a reorganisation/decentralisation of the Role of the Central Office.
  • Concludes with a Proposed Timeline for Implementation of Changes, spanning 1987-1992.

Full report available

Upper Secondary Certification and Tertiary Entrance (Andrich Report) – 1989

  • Designed to examine the degree to which procedures for upper-secondary education and tertiary entrance were achieving their aims.
  • Responds to the effectiveness of procedures that were put into place in 1985, in accordance with the recommendations of the McGaw Report (1984).
  • Responds to four key terms of reference, which broadly concern: issues of breadth and rigour; the definition of satisfactory performance; the minimum number of TEE subjects required as part of a TEE score; and the advantages/disadvantages of internal and external assessments for determining eligibility for tertiary admission.
  • Makes recommendations which support the aims of the McGaw Report (1984) but which argue for a more flexible upper-secondary schooling system.

Full report available

Review of Education and Training (Vickery Report) – 1993

  • Report of the Education, Employment and Training Review, which was commissioned by the Minster for Education in April 1993.
  • Proposes to examine the effectiveness of the delivery of support to education, employment and training in Western Australia.
  • Makes 54 key recommendations which aim to create a more effective portfolio structure that will secure a better quality of service for students, parents, industry and the community.
  • Covers the three key sectors of the Education, Employment and Training portfolio: ‘School Education’; ‘Vocational Education and Training’; and ‘Higher Education’ and provides key recommendations for changes to be made to the portfolio agencies within each sector.

Full report available

2005

Western Australia. Curriculum Council (1998). Curriculum Framework for Kindergarten to Year 12 Education in Western Australia. Perth: Curriculum Council.
Western Australia. Education Department (1998). Overview: Student Outcome Statements. Perth: Government of Western Australia.
Western Australia. Education Department (1999). Focusing on Outcomes: Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting. Perth: Government of Western Australia.

Curriculum Framework for Kindergarten to Year 12 – 1998

  • Presented by the Curriculum Council to the Western Australian Minister for Education in 1998.
  • Sets out the principles, rationale and framework for the new outcomes-focused curriculum direction for all K-12 education in Western Australia.
  • Begins with an explanation of the Key Features and Structure of the Curriculum Framework. It then outlines the seven Key Principles underpinning the curriculum framework, the thirteen Overarching Learning Outcome Statements, and the overall Scope of the Curriculum Framework.
  • Organised under the eight Key Learning Areas, with each Learning Area section providing: a Definition and Rationale for the Learning Area Statement; the Key Learning Outcomes; the Scope of the Curriculum (including developmental phases); a section on Learning, Teaching and Assessment; and Links Across the Curriculum (to other learning areas).
  • Designed for use in conjunction with the Outcomes and Standards Framework Overview – Student Outcome Statements (1998) published by the Education Department of Western Australia.

Full report available

Outcomes and Standards Framework Overview – 1998

  • Designed to directly accompany the Curriculum Framework for Kindergarten to Year 12 Education in Western Australia (1998).
  • Organised via the eight Key Learning Areas, providing a concise overview of the Student Outcome Statements and Levels (1-8) for the Strands and Substrands in each area. Each Learning Area section begins with a brief introduction to the area’s outcomes and how they relate to the Curriculum Framework. Following this are tables that include level descriptors for each Strand.
  • Designed to function as a monitoring/planning tool for schools/teachers when designing outcomes-focused learning programs.

N.B An updated version of this document was released in 2005, which included changes to the structure and terminology of the Student Outcome Statements. The changes were the result of a 2002 review of the Student Outcome Statements by the Western Australian Curriculum Council.

Full report available

Focusing on outcomes: Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting – 1999

  • Organised into three parts: curriculum provision, assessment, and reporting.
  • Designed to provide guidance, to schools and teachers, regarding the move towards, and implementation of, outcomes-based education.
  • Each part includes illustrative case studies from Western Australian schools, which include samples of assessed student work and assessment/reporting proformas.
  • Designed to compliment the Curriculum Framework for Kindergarten to Year 12 in Western Australia (1998) and the Student Outcome Statements: Overview (1998).

Full report available

Tasmania – Key Documents

1975

Tasmania. Education Department (1968). The School in Society: Report of the Committee set up to investigate the Role of the School in Society. Hobart: Education Department of Tasmania.

The School in Society – 1968

  • Identifies three 'constituent elements' by which the school can assist all individuals towards a good life in a good society: Citizenship, Vocational Competence and Self-Cultivation.
  • Stresses the need for a continuous and sequential common education at both primary and secondary levels.
  • Argues for a general education that emphasises general ideas, knowledge and skills.
  • Argues that curriculum should be common to all and that education should be for the 'whole person' not just for the intellect.
  • Makes 55 recommendations relating to the organisation of schools and related matters (including three specific recommendations relating to curriculum), the program of schools, teaching and teachers, and provisions.
  • Identifies seven fields of study including: Arts and Crafts; English; Mathematics; Natural Science; Physical Education; Religious Education; and Social Science.

Full report available

1985

Tasmania. Education Department (1977). Secondary Education in Tasmania: A Review for the Education Department by the Committee on Secondary Education (Scott Report). Hobart: Education Department of Tasmania.
Tasmania. Education Department (1978). Tasmanian Education: Next Decade (TEND Report) Hobart: Education Department of Tasmania.
Tasmania. Department of Education (1980). Requirements for a Curriculum: A Discussion Paper. Hobart: Education Department of Tasmania.
Tasmania. Education Department (1981). White paper on Tasmanian Schools and Colleges in the 1980s. Issued by Harry Holgate, Minister for Education. Hobart: Education Department of Tasmania.

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Secondary Education in Tasmania: Review of the Education Department by the Committee on Secondary Education – 1977

  • Considers existing provisions and future development of educational programs and the organisation of secondary education in Tasmania.
  • Makes a series of recommendations for schools and for the administration, as well as setting out general principles for the system.
  • Illustrates the transition from school to work as a 'process'.
  • Favours a 'balanced curriculum' and a 'core curriculum' of six broad areas of activity: language, mathematics, gaining insights into the physical environment, gaining insights into the social and cultural environment, experience in the arts and crafts, and a consideration of the problems of humanity that concern and puzzle adolescents.

Full report available

Tasmanian Education: Next Decade (TEND) – 1978

  • Promotes a general education with core curriculum including six areas of study.
  • Includes three components of a core curriculum – Communicating, Thinking, and Valuing.
  • Recommends the discontinuation of the School Certificate.
  • Recommends an overhaul of curriculum as a single whole spanning the K-12 years.

Full report available

Requirements for a Curriculum: A Discussion Paper – 1980

  • This discussion paper is the report of the Core Curriculum Study Group which was established following the report, Secondary Education in Tasmania.
  • Discusses 'essential learnings' and competencies but rejects these terms in favour of the idea of 'a thread of usefulness'.
  • Endorses the common purposes idea in TEND: Communicating, Thinking and Valuing.

Full report available

White Paper on Tasmanian Schools and Colleges in the 1980s – 1981

  • Sets policy direction for Tasmanian schools in the 1980s.
  • Recommends that the Education Department provide 'statements' offering broad curriculum guidelines and that schools be responsible for working out the detail of curriculum programs.
  • Encourages greater co-operation between schools and the community.
  • Identifies the importance of 'recurrent education' and provides initiative for improvement.
  • Demonstrates a concern with ‘handicapped’ and otherwise disadvantaged students.

Full report available

1995

Tasmania. Education Department (1987). Secondary Education: The Future – Policy Statement. Hobart: Education Department of Tasmania.
Cresap. (1990). Foundations for the Future: A focus for the Administration of Tasmanian Education and the Arts. Cresap’s Final Report. Sydney: Cresap.

Secondary Education: The Future. Policy Statement – 1987

  • Develops the principles outlined in the Scott Report.
  • Argues for the need for schools to rethink the task of schooling in the context of rapid social/technological change, increasing unemployment and rising retention.
  • Stresses the importance of developing 'competencies and characteristics'.
  • Promotes the idea that curriculum and schools need to develop students who are adaptable and flexible and able to meet the needs of an ever-changing world.
  • Argues for more integrated schooling system in Tasmania and for a continuous curriculum from Kindergarten to Year 12.
  • Recognises individual difference and that schools need to acknowledge and cater for individual difference.
  • Defines six 'most important fields of knowledge and experience' (learning areas).
  • Argues that the organisation of curriculum should be flexible.
  • Demonstrates that the purpose of assessment is to help students learn.
  • Argues that teachers should also have particular 'competencies and characteristics'.
  • Acknowledges the relationship between schools and the community, although does not elaborate on this extensively.

Full report available

Foundations for the Future: A focus for the Administration of Tasmanian Education and the Arts (CRESAP’s Final Report) – 1990

  • Involves an ‘efficiency review’ of the Administration of Tasmanian Education and the Arts.
  • Recommends a devolved model of responsibility to schools.
  • Recommends the establishment of eight district clusters in Tasmania to ensure a coherent K-12 Curriculum.
  • Mostly focuses on structural, administrative and management issues.

Full report available

2005

Tasmania. Department of Education (2000). Learning Together: A Vision for Education, Training and Information into the 21st Century. Hobart: Department of Education.
Tasmania. Department of Education (2002). Essential Learnings Framework 1. Hobart: Department of Education.
Tasmania. Department of Education (2003). Tasmania A State for Learning: A Strategy for Post-Year 10 Education and Training. Hobart: Department of Education.

Learning Together: A Vision for Education, Training and Information into the 21st Century – 2000

  • Provides a vision for Education, Training and Information in the 21st Century.
  • Outlines five goals for creating a ‘world-class’ system and a number of strategies designed to assist in achieving those goals.
  • Promotes improvement and greater integration of existing services and improved pathways.
  • Emphasises the importance of lifelong learning.

Full report available

Essential Learning Framework 1 – 2002

  • Enacts the vision of Tasmania Together and Learning Together: A Vision for Education, Training and Information in the 21st Century(2000).
  • Aims to reduce the problem of the crowded curriculum (appears to do this by taking out all subject areas and replacing them with sets of principles and visions for the person that schools should create).
  • Identifies five essential learnings areas: communicating; thinking; personal futures; social responsibility; and world futures.
  • Notes that in the context of rapid social and technological change, education must help students develop flexibility and critical thinking.
  • Emphasises the following values: connectedness, resilience, achievement, creativity, integrity, responsibility and equity.
  • Includes sets of reflective ‘key questions for educators’.
  • Includes twelve ‘learning, teaching and assessment principles’.

Full report available

Tasmania A State of Learning: A Strategy for Post-Year 10 Education and Training – 2003

  • Arose from the vision of Tasmania Together and Learning Together: A Vision for Education, Training and Information in the 21st Century(2000).
  • Sets out a strategy for post-Year 10 Education and Training.
  • Emphasises lifelong learning, pathways planning and transition support.
  • Includes lists of ‘outcomes’ and initiatives for achieving those outcomes.
  • Initiatives include legislation that will require participation in education and training post-Year 10, a review of the funding model, provision of more flexible learning options, greater integration between sectors, partnerships between students and families and education and training providers, mentoring, and a post-Year 10 curriculum review.
  • Organised around four key elements: ‘guaranteeing futures’, ‘ensuring essential literacies’, ‘enhancing adult learning’ and ‘building learning communities’.

Full report available

The Political Context – Commonwealth, State and Territory Education Ministers

Part of the mapping of curriculum developments across Australia has involved the composition of lists documenting changes of government and education Ministers from 1975 to 2005. Click on the links to access these lists for each state and territory.

You can also access an overview document of State, Territory and Commonwealth Governments 1970-2005 [pdf, 12KB].

Australian Capital Territory

Year Political Party Chief Minister Minister for Education

May 1989

Dec 1989

ALP

Follett

Minister for Industry, Employment & Education
Paul WHALAN – May 1989 to Dec 1989

Dec 1989

Jun 1991

LIB

Kaine

Minister for Health, Education & the Arts
Gary HUMPHRIES – Dec 1989 to Jun 1991

Jun 1991

Mar 1995

ALP

Follett

Minister for Education
Bill WOOD – Jun 1991 to Dec 1991

Minister for Education & Training
Bill WOOD – Jun 1991 to Mar 1995

Mar 1995

Nov 2001

LIB

Carnell | Humphries

Minister for Education & Training
Bill STEFANIAK – Mar 1995 to Mar 1998 (Carnell)

Minister for Education
Bill STEFANIAK – Mar 1998 to Oct 2000
Bill STEFANIAK –Oct 2000 to Nov 2001 (Humphries)

Nov 2001

2005*

ALP

Stanhope

Minister for Education, Youth & Family Services
Simon CORBELL – Nov 2001 to Dec 2002
Katy GALLAGHER – Dec 2002 to May 2004

Minister for Education & Training
Katy GALLAGHER – May 2004 to Apr 2006

*Still in government at project end date of 2005

Source:
Australian Capital Territory (Self-Government) Ministerial Appointments Notices 1989 – 2007. ACT Legislation Register, accessed online, 30 January 2008.

New South Wales

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

May 1965

May 1976

LIB

Askin | Lewis | Willis

Minister for Education
Charles CUTLER – May 1965 to June 1972 (Askin)
Eric WILLIS – Jun 1972 to Jan 1975
Eric WILLIS – Jan 1975 to Jan 1976 (Lewis)
Neil PICKARD – Jan 1976 to May 1976 (Willis)

May 1976

Mar 1988

ALP

Wran | Unsworth

Minister for Education
Eric BEDFORD – May 1976 to Feb 1980 (Wran)
David LANDA – Feb 1980 to Oct 1981
Ronald MULOCK – Oct 1981 to Feb 1984
Eric BEDFORD – Feb 1984 to Apr 1984
Rodney CAVALIER – Apr 1984 to Jul 1986
Rodney CAVALIER – Jul 1986 Mar 1988 (Unsworth)

Mar 1988

Apr 1995

LIB

Greiner | Fahey

Minister for Education & Youth Affairs
Terry METHERELL – Mar 1988 to Jul 1990 (Griener)

Minister for School Education & Youth Affairs
Virginia CHADWICK – Jul 1990 to Jun 1992
Virginia CHADWICK – Jun 1992 to Jul 1992 (Fahey)

Minister for Education & Youth Affairs
Virginia CHADWICK – Jul 1992 to May 1993

Minister for Education, Training & Youth Affairs
Virginia CHADWICK – May 1993 to Apr 1995

Apr 1995

2005*

ALP

Iemma | Carr

Minister for Education and Training
John AQUILINA – Apr 1995 to Apr 2003 (Carr)
Andrew REFSHAUGE – Apr 2003 to Aug 2005
Carmel TEBBUTT – Aug 2005 to Apr 2007 (Iemma)

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002). Parliament of New South Wales Parliamentary Record 1824 – 2007, accessed online 28 January 2008.

Northern Territory

Year Political Party Chief Minister Minister for Education

Nov 1974

Sep 1977

CLP

Letts

Executive Member for Education & Consumer Services
E.J. ANDREW – Nov 1974 to Nov 1975

Executive Member for Education & Law
E.J. ANDREW – Dec 1975 to Dec 1976

Cabinet Member for Education & Planning
M.B. PERRON – Dec 1976 to Sep 1977

Sep 1977

Aug 2001

CLP

Everingham | Tuxworth | Hatton | Perron | Stone | Burke

Minister for Education
J.M. ROBERTSON – Jul 1978 to Nov 1982 (Everingham)
M.B. PERRON – Dec 1982 to Dec 1983
Tom HARRIS – Dec 1983 to Dec 1984
Tom HARRIS – Dec 1984 to Apr 1986 (Tuxworth)
D.W. MANZIE – Apr 1986 to May 1986
D.W. MANZIE – May 1986 to Dec 1987 (Hatton)
R.A. HANRAHAN – Dec 1987 to Apr 1988
Tom HARRIS – Apr 1988 to Jul 1988 (Perron)
Tom HARRIS – Jul 1988 to Sep 1989

Minister for Education, the Arts & Cultural Affairs
Tom HARRIS – Sep 1989 to Nov 1990

Minister for Education & the Arts
S.L. STONE – Nov 1990 to Nov 1992

Minister for Education & Training
F.A. FINCH – Sep 1993 to May 1995
F.A. FINCH – May to Jun 1995 (Stone)
S.P. HATTON – Jul 1995 to Jun 1996
F.A. FINCH – Jun 1996 to Jul 1997
P.F. ADAMSON – Jul 1997 to Dec 1998

Minister for School Education
Peter ADAMSON – Dec 1998 to Feb 1999
Peter ADAMSON – Feb 1999 to Jan 2000 (Burke)
Christopher LUGG – Jan 2000 to Aug 2001

Aug 2001

2005*

ALP

Martin

Minister for Education, Employment & Training
Syd STIRLING – Aug 2001 to Aug 2006

*Still in government at project end date of 2005

Source:
Papers of the Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory: Ministries and Office Holders, Accessed 29 January 2008.

Queensland

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

Aug 1968

Dec 1989

NAT

Bjelke-Petersen | Ahern/Cooper

Minister for Education & Cultural Affairs
Alan FLETCHER – Aug 1968 to Dec 1974
Thomas NEWBERY – Dec 1974 to Mar 1975
Valmond BIRD – Mar 1975 to Dec 1977

Minister for Education
Valmond BIRD – Dec 1977 to Dec 1980
William GUNN – Dec 1980 to Dec 1982
Lionel POWELL - Dec 1982 to Nov 1987

Minister for Education, Training and Technology
Lionel POWELL – Nov 1987 to Dec 1987

Minister for Education, Youth and Sport
Brian LITTLEPROUD – Dec 1987 to Aug 1989

Minister for Education, Youth, Sport & Recreation
Brian LITTLEPROUD – Aug 1989 to Dec 1989

Dec 1989

Feb 1996

ALP

Goss

Minister for Education
Paul BRADDY – Dec 1989 to Sep 1992
Patrick COMBEN – Sep 1992 to Feb 1995
David HAMILL – Feb 1995 to Feb 1996

Feb 1996

Jun 1998

NAT

Borbidge

Minister for Education
Robert QUINN – Feb 1996 to Jun 1998

Jun 1998

2005*

ALP

Beattie

Minister for Education
Dean WELLS – Jun 1998 to Feb 2001
Anna BLIGH - Feb 2001 to Jul 2005
Rodney WELFORD – Jul 2005 to current

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition(Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002); Queensland Parliamentary Handbook. Record of Office Holders Since 1860. Accessed 29 January 2008.

South Australia

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

Jun 1970

Sep 1979

ALP

Corcoran | Dunstan

Minister of Education
Richard HUDSON – Jun 1970 to Jun 1975
Donald HOPGOOD – Jun 1975 to Feb 1979
Donald HOPGOOD – Feb 1979 to Sep 1979 (Corcoran)

Sep 1979

Nov 1982

LIB

Tonkin

Minister of Education
Harold ALLISON – Sep 1979 to Nov 1982

Nov 1982

Dec 1993

ALP

Bannon | Arnold

Minister of Education
Lynn ARNOLD – Nov 1982 to Dec 1985 (Bannon)
Gregory CRAFTER – Dec 1985 to Sep 1992
Gregory CRAFTER – Sep 1992 to Oct 1992 (Arnold)

Minister for Education, Employment & Training
Susan LENEHAN – Oct 1992 to Dec 1993

Dec 1993

Mar 2002

LIB

Brown | Olsen | Kerin

Minister for Education and Children's Services
Robert LUCAS – Dec 1993 to Nov 1996 (Brown)
Robert LUCAS – Nov 1996 to Oct 1997 (Olsen)

Minister for Education, Children's Services & Training
Malcolm BUCKLEY – Oct 1997 to Oct 2001

Minister for Education & Children's Services
Malcolm BUCKLEY – Oct 2001 to Mar 2002 (Kerin)

Mar 2002

2005*

ALP

Rann

Minister for Education & Children's Services
Patricia WHITE – Mar 2002 to Mar 2004
Jane LOMAX-SMITH – Mar 2004 to current

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002); Parliament of South Australia Statistical Record of the Legislature 1836 – 2007. Accessed online 25 January 2008; The Western Australian Parliamentary Handbook (21st ed. Revised) 2005. Black, David (editor). The Western Australian Government Gazette No. 21, 25th January 2006; Parliament of Western Australia

Tasmania

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

May 1972

May 1982

ALP

Reece | Neilson | Lowe | Holgate

Minister for Education
William NEILSON – May 1972 – Apr 1974 (Reece)
Neil BATT – Apr 1974 to May 1976 (Reece/Neilson)

Minister for Education, Recreation and Federal Affairs
Neil BATT – May 1976 to Dec 1976 (Neilson)

Minister for Education, Recreation and the Arts
Neil BATT – Dec 1976 to Dec 1977
Harold HOLGATE – Dec 1977 to Aug 1980 (Lowe)

Minister for Education
Harold HOLGATE – Aug 1980 to Jul 1981

Minister for Education and the Arts
Terrence AULICH – Jul 1981 to May 1982 (Lowe/Holgate)

May 1982 –
Jun 1989

LIB

Gray

Minister for Education
Eardley Max BINGHAM – May 1982 to Jun 1984
Richard BESWICK – Jun 1984 to Feb 1986

Minister of Education and the Arts
Peter RAE – Feb 1986 to May 1989
Richard BESWICK – Jun 1989 to Jun 1989

Jun 1989 –
Feb 1992

ALP

Field

Minister for Education & the Arts
Peter PATMORE – Jul 1989 to Apr 1991
Michael AIRD – Apr 1991 to Feb 1992

Feb 1992 –
Sep 1998

LIB

Rundle | Groom

Minister for Education and the Arts
Richard BESWICK – Feb 1992 to Mar 1996 (Groom)

Minister for Education and Vocational Training
Suzanne NAPIER – Mar 1996 to Sep 1998 (Rundle)

Sep 1998 –
2005*

ALP

Bacon | Lennon

Ministerfor Education
Paula WRIEDT – Sep 1998 to Oct 2001 (Bacon)
Frances BLADEL – Oct 2001 to Jan 2002
Paula WRIEDT – Jan 2002 to Apr 2006 (Bacon/Lennon)
David BARTLETT – Apr 2006 to current (Lennon)

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002); The Parliament of Tasmania from 1856. Tasmanian Parliamentary Library online. Accessed 25 January 2008.

Victoria

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

Aug 1955

1972 (Bolte)
Apr 1982

LIB

Hamer | Thompson

Minister of Education
Lindsay THOMPSON – May 1967 to May 1979 (Bolte/Hamer)
Alan HUNT – May 1979 to Apr 1982 (Hamer/Thompson)

Apr 1982

Oct 1992

ALP

Cain | Kirner

Minister of Education
Robert FORDHAM – Apr 1982 to Mar 1985 (Cain)
Ian CATHIE – Mar 1985 to Dec 1987
Caroline HOGG – Dec 1987 to Oct 1988
Joan KIRNER – OCT 1988 to Aug 1990
Barry PULLEN – Aug 1990 to Jan 1991 (Kirner)

Minister for Education and Training
Barry PULLEN – Jan 1991 to Jan 1992

Minister for Education
Neil POPE – Jan 1992 to Oct 1992

Oct 1992

Oct 1999

LIB/NAT

Kennett

Minister for Education
Don HAYWARD – Oct 1992 to Mar 1996
Phil GUDE – Mar 1996 to Oct 1999

Oct 1999

2005*

ALP

Bracks

Minister for Education
Mary DELAHUNTY – Oct 1999 to Feb 2002

Minister for Education and Training
Lynne KOSKY – Feb 2002 to Dec 2006

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002); Parliament of Victoria Ministers Database – Ministers since 1982. Accessed 26 January 2008.

Western Australia

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

Mar 1971 –
Apr 1974

ALP

Tonkin

Minister for Education
John TONKIN – Mar 1971 to Oct 1971
Thomas EVANS – Oct 1971 to May 1973
John DOLAN – May 1973 to Apr 1974

Apr 1974 –
Feb 1983

LIB

Court | O'Connor

Minister for Education
Graham MACKINNON – Apr 1974 to Mar 1977
Peter JONES – Mar 1977 to Mar 1980
William GRAYDEN – Mar 1980 to Jan 1982
James CLARKO – May 1982 to Feb 1983

Feb 1983 –
Feb 1993

ALP

Burke | Dowding | Lawrence

Minister for Education
Robert PEARCE – Feb 1983 to Feb 1988 (Burke)
Carmen LAWRENCE – Feb 1988 to Feb 1990 (Dowding)
Geoffrey GALLOP – Feb 1990 to Feb 1991 (Lawrence)
Elise HALLAHAN – Feb 1991 to Feb 1993

Feb 1993 –
Feb 2001

LIB

Court

Minister for Education
Norman MOORE – Feb 1993 to Dec 1995
Colin BARNETT – Dec 1995 to Feb 2001

Feb 2001 –
2005*

ALP

Gallop | Caprenter

Minister for Education
Alan CARPENTER – Feb 2001 to Mar 2005
Ljiljanna RAVLICH – Mar 2005 to Dec 2006 (Gallop/Carpenter)
Mark MCGOWEN – Dec 2006 to current

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002); Department of the Premier and Cabinet: The Constitutional Centre of Western Australia, Premiers, accessed online 24 January 2008.

Commonwealth

Year Political Party Prime Minister Minister for Education

Dec 1972

Nov 1975

ALP

Whitlam

Minister for Education
Kim BEAZLEY – Dec 1972 to Nov 1975
Margaret GUILFOYLE – Nov 1975 to Dec 1975

Nov 1975

Mar 1983

LIB

Fraser

Minister for Education
John CARRICK – Dec 1975 to Dec 1979
Wallace FIFE – Dec 1979 to May 1982
Peter BAUME – May 1982 to Mar 1983

Mar 1983

Mar 1996

ALP

Hawke | Keating

Minister for Education
Susan RYAN – Mar 1983 Jul 1987

Minister for Employment, Education and Training
John DAWKINS – Jul 1987 Dec 1991
Kim BEAZLEY – Dec 1991 to Mar 1993
Kim BEAZLEY – Mar 1993 to Dec 1993 (Keating)
Simon CREAN – Dec 1993 to Mar 1996

Mar 1996 –
Dec 2007

LIB

Howard

Minister for Employment, Education, Training & Youth Affairs
Amanda VANSTONE – Mar 1996 to Oct 1997

Minister for Employment, Education & Youth Affairs David KEMP – Oct 1997 to Oct 1998

Minister for Education, Training & Youth Affairs
David KEMP – Oct 1998 to Nov 2001
Brendan NELSON – Nov 2001 to Jan 2006


Sources:
Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia. Accessed online 25 January 2008. Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002).

The Political Context – Commonwealth, State and Territory Education Ministers

Part of the mapping of curriculum developments across Australia has involved the composition of lists documenting changes of government and education Ministers from 1975 to 2005. Click on the links to access these lists for each state and territory.

You can also access an overview document of State, Territory and Commonwealth Governments 1970-2005 [pdf, 12KB].

Australian Capital Territory

Year Political Party Chief Minister Minister for Education

May 1989

Dec 1989

ALP

Follett

Minister for Industry, Employment & Education
Paul WHALAN – May 1989 to Dec 1989

Dec 1989

Jun 1991

LIB

Kaine

Minister for Health, Education & the Arts
Gary HUMPHRIES – Dec 1989 to Jun 1991

Jun 1991

Mar 1995

ALP

Follett

Minister for Education
Bill WOOD – Jun 1991 to Dec 1991

Minister for Education & Training
Bill WOOD – Jun 1991 to Mar 1995

Mar 1995

Nov 2001

LIB

Carnell | Humphries

Minister for Education & Training
Bill STEFANIAK – Mar 1995 to Mar 1998 (Carnell)

Minister for Education
Bill STEFANIAK – Mar 1998 to Oct 2000
Bill STEFANIAK –Oct 2000 to Nov 2001 (Humphries)

Nov 2001

2005*

ALP

Stanhope

Minister for Education, Youth & Family Services
Simon CORBELL – Nov 2001 to Dec 2002
Katy GALLAGHER – Dec 2002 to May 2004

Minister for Education & Training
Katy GALLAGHER – May 2004 to Apr 2006

*Still in government at project end date of 2005

Source:
Australian Capital Territory (Self-Government) Ministerial Appointments Notices 1989 – 2007. ACT Legislation Register, accessed online, 30 January 2008.

New South Wales

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

May 1965

May 1976

LIB

Askin | Lewis | Willis

Minister for Education
Charles CUTLER – May 1965 to June 1972 (Askin)
Eric WILLIS – Jun 1972 to Jan 1975
Eric WILLIS – Jan 1975 to Jan 1976 (Lewis)
Neil PICKARD – Jan 1976 to May 1976 (Willis)

May 1976

Mar 1988

ALP

Wran | Unsworth

Minister for Education
Eric BEDFORD – May 1976 to Feb 1980 (Wran)
David LANDA – Feb 1980 to Oct 1981
Ronald MULOCK – Oct 1981 to Feb 1984
Eric BEDFORD – Feb 1984 to Apr 1984
Rodney CAVALIER – Apr 1984 to Jul 1986
Rodney CAVALIER – Jul 1986 Mar 1988 (Unsworth)

Mar 1988

Apr 1995

LIB

Greiner | Fahey

Minister for Education & Youth Affairs
Terry METHERELL – Mar 1988 to Jul 1990 (Griener)

Minister for School Education & Youth Affairs
Virginia CHADWICK – Jul 1990 to Jun 1992
Virginia CHADWICK – Jun 1992 to Jul 1992 (Fahey)

Minister for Education & Youth Affairs
Virginia CHADWICK – Jul 1992 to May 1993

Minister for Education, Training & Youth Affairs
Virginia CHADWICK – May 1993 to Apr 1995

Apr 1995

2005*

ALP

Iemma | Carr

Minister for Education and Training
John AQUILINA – Apr 1995 to Apr 2003 (Carr)
Andrew REFSHAUGE – Apr 2003 to Aug 2005
Carmel TEBBUTT – Aug 2005 to Apr 2007 (Iemma)

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002). Parliament of New South Wales Parliamentary Record 1824 – 2007, accessed online 28 January 2008 [pdf]

Northern Territory

Year Political Party Chief Minister Minister for Education

Nov 1974

Sep 1977

CLP

Letts

Executive Member for Education & Consumer Services
E.J. ANDREW – Nov 1974 to Nov 1975

Executive Member for Education & Law
E.J. ANDREW – Dec 1975 to Dec 1976

Cabinet Member for Education & Planning
M.B. PERRON – Dec 1976 to Sep 1977

Sep 1977

Aug 2001

CLP

Everingham | Tuxworth | Hatton | Perron | Stone | Burke

Minister for Education
J.M. ROBERTSON – Jul 1978 to Nov 1982 (Everingham)
M.B. PERRON – Dec 1982 to Dec 1983
Tom HARRIS – Dec 1983 to Dec 1984
Tom HARRIS – Dec 1984 to Apr 1986 (Tuxworth)
D.W. MANZIE – Apr 1986 to May 1986
D.W. MANZIE – May 1986 to Dec 1987 (Hatton)
R.A. HANRAHAN – Dec 1987 to Apr 1988
Tom HARRIS – Apr 1988 to Jul 1988 (Perron)
Tom HARRIS – Jul 1988 to Sep 1989

Minister for Education, the Arts & Cultural Affairs
Tom HARRIS – Sep 1989 to Nov 1990

Minister for Education & the Arts
S.L. STONE – Nov 1990 to Nov 1992

Minister for Education & Training
F.A. FINCH – Sep 1993 to May 1995
F.A. FINCH – May to Jun 1995 (Stone)
S.P. HATTON – Jul 1995 to Jun 1996
F.A. FINCH – Jun 1996 to Jul 1997
P.F. ADAMSON – Jul 1997 to Dec 1998

Minister for School Education
Peter ADAMSON – Dec 1998 to Feb 1999
Peter ADAMSON – Feb 1999 to Jan 2000 (Burke)
Christopher LUGG – Jan 2000 to Aug 2001

Aug 2001

2005*

ALP

Martin

Minister for Education, Employment & Training
Syd STIRLING – Aug 2001 to Aug 2006

*Still in government at project end date of 2005

Source:
Papers of the Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory: Ministries and Office Holders, Accessed 29 January 2008.

Queensland

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

Aug 1968

Dec 1989

NAT

Bjelke-Petersen | Ahern/Cooper

Minister for Education & Cultural Affairs
Alan FLETCHER – Aug 1968 to Dec 1974
Thomas NEWBERY – Dec 1974 to Mar 1975
Valmond BIRD – Mar 1975 to Dec 1977

Minister for Education
Valmond BIRD – Dec 1977 to Dec 1980
William GUNN – Dec 1980 to Dec 1982
Lionel POWELL - Dec 1982 to Nov 1987

Minister for Education, Training and Technology
Lionel POWELL – Nov 1987 to Dec 1987

Minister for Education, Youth and Sport
Brian LITTLEPROUD – Dec 1987 to Aug 1989

Minister for Education, Youth, Sport & Recreation
Brian LITTLEPROUD – Aug 1989 to Dec 1989

Dec 1989

Feb 1996

ALP

Goss

Minister for Education
Paul BRADDY – Dec 1989 to Sep 1992
Patrick COMBEN – Sep 1992 to Feb 1995
David HAMILL – Feb 1995 to Feb 1996

Feb 1996

Jun 1998

NAT

Borbidge

Minister for Education
Robert QUINN – Feb 1996 to Jun 1998

Jun 1998

2005*

ALP

Beattie

Minister for Education
Dean WELLS – Jun 1998 to Feb 2001
Anna BLIGH - Feb 2001 to Jul 2005
Rodney WELFORD – Jul 2005 to current

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition(Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002); Queensland Parliamentary Handbook. Record of Office Holders Since 1860. Accessed 29 January 2008.

South Australia

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

Jun 1970

Sep 1979

ALP

Corcoran | Dunstan

Minister of Education
Richard HUDSON – Jun 1970 to Jun 1975
Donald HOPGOOD – Jun 1975 to Feb 1979
Donald HOPGOOD – Feb 1979 to Sep 1979 (Corcoran)

Sep 1979

Nov 1982

LIB

Tonkin

Minister of Education
Harold ALLISON – Sep 1979 to Nov 1982

Nov 1982

Dec 1993

ALP

Bannon | Arnold

Minister of Education
Lynn ARNOLD – Nov 1982 to Dec 1985 (Bannon)
Gregory CRAFTER – Dec 1985 to Sep 1992
Gregory CRAFTER – Sep 1992 to Oct 1992 (Arnold)

Minister for Education, Employment & Training
Susan LENEHAN – Oct 1992 to Dec 1993

Dec 1993

Mar 2002

LIB

Brown | Olsen | Kerin

Minister for Education and Children's Services
Robert LUCAS – Dec 1993 to Nov 1996 (Brown)
Robert LUCAS – Nov 1996 to Oct 1997 (Olsen)

Minister for Education, Children's Services & Training
Malcolm BUCKLEY – Oct 1997 to Oct 2001

Minister for Education & Children's Services
Malcolm BUCKLEY – Oct 2001 to Mar 2002 (Kerin)

Mar 2002

2005*

ALP

Rann

Minister for Education & Children's Services
Patricia WHITE – Mar 2002 to Mar 2004
Jane LOMAX-SMITH – Mar 2004 to current

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002); Parliament of South Australia Statistical Record of the Legislature 1836 – 2007. Accessed online 25 January 2008; The Western Australian Parliamentary Handbook (21st ed. Revised) 2005. Black, David (editor). The Western Australian Government Gazette No. 21, 25th January 2006; Parliament of Western Australia

Tasmania

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

May 1972

May 1982

ALP

Reece | Neilson | Lowe | Holgate

Minister for Education
William NEILSON – May 1972 – Apr 1974 (Reece)
Neil BATT – Apr 1974 to May 1976 (Reece/Neilson)

Minister for Education, Recreation and Federal Affairs
Neil BATT – May 1976 to Dec 1976 (Neilson)

Minister for Education, Recreation and the Arts
Neil BATT – Dec 1976 to Dec 1977
Harold HOLGATE – Dec 1977 to Aug 1980 (Lowe)

Minister for Education
Harold HOLGATE – Aug 1980 to Jul 1981

Minister for Education and the Arts
Terrence AULICH – Jul 1981 to May 1982 (Lowe/Holgate)

May 1982 –
Jun 1989

LIB

Gray

Minister for Education
Eardley Max BINGHAM – May 1982 to Jun 1984
Richard BESWICK – Jun 1984 to Feb 1986

Minister of Education and the Arts
Peter RAE – Feb 1986 to May 1989
Richard BESWICK – Jun 1989 to Jun 1989

Jun 1989 –
Feb 1992

ALP

Field

Minister for Education & the Arts
Peter PATMORE – Jul 1989 to Apr 1991
Michael AIRD – Apr 1991 to Feb 1992

Feb 1992 –
Sep 1998

LIB

Rundle | Groom

Minister for Education and the Arts
Richard BESWICK – Feb 1992 to Mar 1996 (Groom)

Minister for Education and Vocational Training
Suzanne NAPIER – Mar 1996 to Sep 1998 (Rundle)

Sep 1998 –
2005*

ALP

Bacon | Lennon

Ministerfor Education
Paula WRIEDT – Sep 1998 to Oct 2001 (Bacon)
Frances BLADEL – Oct 2001 to Jan 2002
Paula WRIEDT – Jan 2002 to Apr 2006 (Bacon/Lennon)
David BARTLETT – Apr 2006 to current (Lennon)

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002); The Parliament of Tasmania from 1856. Tasmanian Parliamentary Library online. Accessed 25 January 2008.

Victoria

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

Aug 1955

1972 (Bolte)
Apr 1982

LIB

Hamer | Thompson

Minister of Education
Lindsay THOMPSON – May 1967 to May 1979 (Bolte/Hamer)
Alan HUNT – May 1979 to Apr 1982 (Hamer/Thompson)

Apr 1982

Oct 1992

ALP

Cain | Kirner

Minister of Education
Robert FORDHAM – Apr 1982 to Mar 1985 (Cain)
Ian CATHIE – Mar 1985 to Dec 1987
Caroline HOGG – Dec 1987 to Oct 1988
Joan KIRNER – OCT 1988 to Aug 1990
Barry PULLEN – Aug 1990 to Jan 1991 (Kirner)

Minister for Education and Training
Barry PULLEN – Jan 1991 to Jan 1992

Minister for Education
Neil POPE – Jan 1992 to Oct 1992

Oct 1992

Oct 1999

LIB/NAT

Kennett

Minister for Education
Don HAYWARD – Oct 1992 to Mar 1996
Phil GUDE – Mar 1996 to Oct 1999

Oct 1999

2005*

ALP

Bracks

Minister for Education
Mary DELAHUNTY – Oct 1999 to Feb 2002

Minister for Education and Training
Lynne KOSKY – Feb 2002 to Dec 2006

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002); Parliament of Victoria Ministers Database – Ministers since 1982. Accessed 26 January 2008.

Western Australia

Year Political Party Premier Minister for Education

Mar 1971 –
Apr 1974

ALP

Tonkin

Minister for Education
John TONKIN – Mar 1971 to Oct 1971
Thomas EVANS – Oct 1971 to May 1973
John DOLAN – May 1973 to Apr 1974

Apr 1974 –
Feb 1983

LIB

Court | O'Connor

Minister for Education
Graham MACKINNON – Apr 1974 to Mar 1977
Peter JONES – Mar 1977 to Mar 1980
William GRAYDEN – Mar 1980 to Jan 1982
James CLARKO – May 1982 to Feb 1983

Feb 1983 –
Feb 1993

ALP

Burke | Dowding | Lawrence

Minister for Education
Robert PEARCE – Feb 1983 to Feb 1988 (Burke)
Carmen LAWRENCE – Feb 1988 to Feb 1990 (Dowding)
Geoffrey GALLOP – Feb 1990 to Feb 1991 (Lawrence)
Elise HALLAHAN – Feb 1991 to Feb 1993

Feb 1993 –
Feb 2001

LIB

Court

Minister for Education
Norman MOORE – Feb 1993 to Dec 1995
Colin BARNETT – Dec 1995 to Feb 2001

Feb 2001 –
2005*

ALP

Gallop | Caprenter

Minister for Education
Alan CARPENTER – Feb 2001 to Mar 2005
Ljiljanna RAVLICH – Mar 2005 to Dec 2006 (Gallop/Carpenter)
Mark MCGOWEN – Dec 2006 to current

*Still in government at project end date of 2005.

Sources:
Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002); Department of the Premier and Cabinet: The Constitutional Centre of Western Australia, Premiers, accessed online 24 January 2008.

Commonwealth

Year Political Party Prime Minister Minister for Education

Dec 1972

Nov 1975

ALP

Whitlam

Minister for Education
Kim BEAZLEY – Dec 1972 to Nov 1975
Margaret GUILFOYLE – Nov 1975 to Dec 1975

Nov 1975

Mar 1983

LIB

Fraser

Minister for Education
John CARRICK – Dec 1975 to Dec 1979
Wallace FIFE – Dec 1979 to May 1982
Peter BAUME – May 1982 to Mar 1983

Mar 1983

Mar 1996

ALP

Hawke | Keating

Minister for Education
Susan RYAN – Mar 1983 Jul 1987

Minister for Employment, Education and Training
John DAWKINS – Jul 1987 Dec 1991
Kim BEAZLEY – Dec 1991 to Mar 1993
Kim BEAZLEY – Mar 1993 to Dec 1993 (Keating)
Simon CREAN – Dec 1993 to Mar 1996

Mar 1996 –
Dec 2007

LIB

Howard

Minister for Employment, Education, Training & Youth Affairs
Amanda VANSTONE – Mar 1996 to Oct 1997

Minister for Employment, Education & Youth Affairs David KEMP – Oct 1997 to Oct 1998

Minister for Education, Training & Youth Affairs
David KEMP – Oct 1998 to Nov 2001
Brendan NELSON – Nov 2001 to Jan 2006


Sources:
Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia. Accessed online 25 January 2008. Colin A. Hughes, A Handbook of Australian Government and Politics, 1965-1974 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1977) 1975-1984 Edition (Canberra: ANU Press, 1986); and 1975-1999 Edition (Canberra: Federation Press, 2002).

Resources

Case Study Analysis: South Australia

References

In order to further understand the complexity of Australian curriculum policy produced over this period, we have also started to review the policies of specific states in detail as case studies. We began by looking at South Australia and, as part of our analysis, have developed overviews of the state’s curriculum policy for each decade period.

These overviews examine the changes in South Australia’s curriculum policy and culture according to the project questions and provide a detailed summary of curriculum change over the period of review. The overviews for each period, as well as a reference list, can be accessed by clicking on the links above.We hope that this work helps further understanding of the values, knowledge agendas and priorities that are part of South Australia’s curriculum history as well as contributes to broader understanding of Australia’s curriculum history as a whole.

The case study analysis of South Australia and all attached documents were developed by Cherry Collins. As part of her analysis, Cherry has also written a journal article with Lyn Yates entitled Curriculum Policy in South Australia since the 1970s: the quest for commonality, which was published in the Australian Journal of Education, Issue 53 (2), pp. 125-140.

Australian Curriculum Theses

In addition to developing chronologies of school curriculum policy and identifying key curriculum documents for each state, we have also compiled lists of Masters and Doctoral theses concerned with curriculum in Australian schools over the four decades that are the focus of the study. The aim in compiling these lists was to capture something of changes of activity and interests in relation to curriculum, as well as debates and concerns about curriculum, across states and over time. In making this material available we also hope that it will provide a resource and starting point for further study by others – and we say more about this below.

Given the large number of education theses produced over this period, it was beyond the scope of the project to examine this data on an annual basis. Yet we also felt that the ten year intervals we have used as a basis for other parts of the project would sit awkwardly here, given that theses are normally produced over an extended time, so that theses produced in the years we have taken as the focus for policy analysis would not reflect directly the interest of that year but of an earlier year in which the thesis was commenced. As an imperfect compromise, given our very limited resources, we decided to produce lists of curriculum theses completed at Australian universities at five year intervals: 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005.

Of the 2926 education theses produced at these intervals, we identified 509 as relating to curriculum. The selected theses approach curriculum scholarship in a range of ways, including analysis of student learning in specific disciplines, curriculum change and development histories, student and teacher perceptions of changing curriculum and disadvantage and difference in terms of socio-economic status, gender, disability and ethnicity. A cursory analysis of the abstracts suggests that the period saw a shift from scholarship focusing on curriculum policy to a more student centred approach analysing student difference and student perceptions of their own learning. In the later years of review, greater numbers of theses were produced which analysed specific schools, school communities, teachers and students to test hypotheses, as opposed to previously favoured methods of policy and textual analysis. The period also saw a marked increase of curriculum scholarship in the 1980s and 1990s which has since declined, particularly in regards to masters theses. A selection of graphs representing the numbers of curriculum and other education theses is available.

The theses selected offer some taste of changing interests and changing quantum of scholarly inquiry in this area, but a more refined sense of such changes awaits further more detailed research by others.

The problem of deciding criteria for what counts as a ‘curriculum’ thesis proved as difficult here as our earlier problem of deciding what counts as a ‘curriculum’ policy document. We initially excluded

  • tertiary education
  • early childhood education
  • perspectives of beginning teachers
  • 19th and early 20th century histories of Australian education
  • studies of countries outside Australia
  • studies of cognitive functioning (unless these were clearly in the context of questions about school subjects or curriculum provision)
  • discipline and classroom teaching (again, unless it relates to a particular subject)
  • principals and professional development
  • in-service and pre-service teacher education (unless it is about the implementation of a specific curriculum or has a specific subject focus)
  • stress management
  • teacher or student perceptions (unless it relates to curriculum)
  • motivation (again, unless it is say about gender and maths or something to that effect)

In the first few cases, decisions about exclusion were relatively clear cut; but with theses related to teaching and learning (and many Australian theses are studies of particular classrooms or particular schools), the issue is much more ambiguous. In these cases, if the title seemed to indicate some interest in the issue of what is being conveyed to students in schooling, they have been left in; while if they seemed to be primarily about effectiveness of particular pedagogies, or characteristics of particular students, they have been excluded. But these are not easy matters to judge from titles and short abstracts. We arrived at our lists by having Katie Wright and Lyn Yates separately categorize ‘curriculum’ theses from the overall lists, but it is not a neatly bounded exercise, and we would encourage others to do some more extensive systematic analyses of the theses that have been done in Education in Australia.

So we are not claiming that these lists are in any sense definitive ones. We see them as one starting point which you might use to see some changes or difference or kinds of interests across states and over time; but acknowledge the ambiguity of the task associated with our selection of what we are calling ‘curriculum theses’. We hope others might do further work on this area. For example, it would be interesting to look at all the theses being produced by principals and teachers actually working in schools over this period; or to look for directions of inquiry and theoretical commitments associated with particular universities or particular states. The issue of what Australian traditions can be discerned in our curriculum scholarship is one where we need to know more of our own history.

Anyone interested in undertaking PhD research on this area is invited to contact Lyn Yates.

We hope that this material provides a resource for others working in curriculum studies, but even more an inspiration to do further work on this area. We acknowledge the invaluable work done by ACER in compiling the Education Research Theses database and also thank ACER for permission to use this material. For further information on the Australian Education Theses Database, please visit the ACER website: www.acer.edu.au/library/theses.html

1975

ACT

 
 

"Smart, D. (1975). Federal aid to Australian schools: origins and aspects of the implementation of the Commonwealth Science Laboratories and Libraries Scheme. Canberra ACT, Australian National University."

PhD

"This study undertakes a close examination of the first two major national schemes of Federal aid to schools. These were the Commonwealth science laboratories scheme, promised by Prime Minister Menzies during the 1963 Federal election campaign, and the Commonwealth libraries scheme announced in August 1968. The study is in two parts, the first dealing with the origins of the two schemes and the second with aspects of their implementation at Commonwealth and State level. Acknowledging the extremely important 'state' and 'Federal aid' precedents established by Menzies' science laboratories promise, the study seeks to explain this dramatic reversal of Federal Government policy. Chapters I and II describe the background context of growing centripetal pressures in the Australian federal system and the increasing involvement of the Federal Government in education, despite its being a power supposedly 'reserved' to the States. Chapters III and IV then narrow the focus to the crucial years between 1956 and 1963. During these years, the study argues, there occurred a gradual convergence of three major pressures which ultimately forced the Menzies' Government to reverse its policy and introduce Federal aid. These pressures were for state aid, Federal aid and science aid for schools and, essentially, came from independent school representatives, State school representatives and professional scientists and industry respectively. Chapter IV also deals with the more immediate events and electoral circumstances which contributed to Menzies' promise. Chapter V examines the pressure group activities and circumstances which led to the second Federal initiative, the libraries scheme in 1968. implementation of these programs. Chapters VI to IX examine the Part II, Implementation, deals with certain aspects of the early years of the science scheme from 1964 to 1968. The aim is to describe what happened in this novel situation in which the Commonwealth Government in the first instance, and then its agencies in the States, commenced to plan and implement a new and complex Federal-State enterprise in a sensitive area of traditional State and independent school autonomy. It describes and analyses the political, legislative and administrative developments of this crucial formative period during which evolved a set of structures, policies and procedures at both Commonwealth and State levels, for the implementation of the program. Chapter X provides an examination of some key features and problems of policy formulation and administration in the early years of the libraries program. Particular emphasis is placed on developments at Commonwealth and State Departmental level. Another theme which runs throughout the whole of the implementation section is the evolution of Commonwealth- State relations in education as reflected in these programs. The study concludes with a brief discussion of some possible implications, some possible areas"

   

NSW

 
 

"Abraham, D. A. (1975). The development of the mathematics syllabus in New South Wales state high schools, 1883-1962. Callaghan NSW, University of Newcastle."

MEd

Abstract not available

   
 

"McCaskill, T. J. (1975). Upper secondary education: problems and perspectives: the organization and provision of schooling for sixteen to eighteen year olds in Australia and other technologically advanced countries. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

Abstract not available

   
 

"McDowell, D. H. (1975). The development and educational role of schools of arts in England and their influence on the development and educational role of school arts in Australia. Kensington NSW, University of New South Wales."

MEd

Abstract not available

   
 

"Murphy, F. R. J. (1975). The place of jazz in music education. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MA

Abstract not available

   
 

"Rees, J. (1975). Towards a theory of change and innovation with particular reference to science and religion education. Callaghan NSW, University of Newcastle."

MEd

Abstract not available

   
 

"Rose, H. M. (1975). Spiritualist education in the United States of America, Australia and Great Britain: or, The ectoplasm of progressive education. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

Abstract not available

   
 

"Van Der Veen, T. T. F. (1975). An examination of three major theoretical aspects of teaching history in New South Wales secondary schools. Callaghan NSW, University of Newcastle."

MEd

Abstract not available

   

QLD

 
 

"Cox, G. B. (1975). Substantive disciplinary structure in geography. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

PhD

Abstract not available

   
 

"Finch, N. G. (1975). Torres Strait Island education: past present and a proposal for the future re-organisation of the primary school system. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEd

Abstract not available

   

VIC

 
 

"D'Cruz, J. V. (1975). The concept of accountability and some implications of educational accountability in the Karmel report. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

Abstract not available

   
 

"Heywood, P. M. (1975). The nature of religious belief and its bearing on education. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

Abstract not available

   
 

"Langmead, R. (1975). The epistemological status of religious belief and its implications for education. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

Abstract not available

   
 

"Owen, J. M. (1975). The effects of schools on achievement in science. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

Abstract not available

   
 

"Trewartha, G. E. (1975). An assessment of the educational value of a computer simulation policy game in teaching of higher school certificate economics. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

Abstract not available

1980

ACT

 
 

"Bannister, B. (1980). Bilingual education in the Northern Territory as an experiment in curriculum development. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"The bilingual education program in the Northern Territory is examined in terms of its achievements as a curriculum enterprise. The rational, or objectives model of curriculum which constitutes a significant aspect of the total approach to this examination, suggests a number of shortcomings in the program which are singled out for special attention. Reference to the various historical, political, and social factors which form the basis of such a program provides some indication of the range of problems confronting the dual activities of development and evaluation. In focussing on selected aspects, it is possible to review the operation of the program's aims, rationale, practical implementation, and evaluation strategies. The alleged lack of clarity and control over such matters on the part of the educational planners has given rise to problems not open to easy solution. It is seen that long term solutions lie in comprehensive reappraisals of what a bilingual education program might realistically achieve in a context of considerable cultural and linguistic diversity, such as exists in the Northern Territory."

 
 

"Chapman, L. E. H. (1980). A case study of curriculum change, Hawker College, ACT. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"The Report of the Working Committee on College Proposals for the Australian Capital Territory (Campbell Report, 1972) led to far reaching changes in senior secondary education. Hawker College, opened in 1976, is one of eight resulting government secondary colleges. The writer, a member of the Committee, has been Assistant Principal (Curriculum) at Hawker since its inception. This field study examines the dynamics, nature and achievements of curriculum change at Hawker, from the planning year in 1975, to 1980. Data includes student surveys and interviews; discussions with teachers, administrators and counsellors; college curriculum documents and the writer's own observations. The Campbell Report's educational philosophy was eclectic, and 'progressive'. Strengths and weaknesses of the Working Committee's analyses and recommendations are assessed. Seven curriculum aims 'clusters' are synthesized: four concerned with individual development, and three with the student as an effective, contributing member of society. Hawker has had significant success in promoting students' individual development. It has been markedly less successful in preparing students to function within, and contribute to, society."

 
 

"Coates, J. (1980). Open education: a definition and an exploratory survey of some ACT teachers and parents attitudes. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"Open education is defined operationally in terms of the Roland Barths (1971) open education scale plus Bob Young's curriculum scale based upon Basil Bernstein's classification of educational knowledge (collected versus integrated codes). Young's scale on the organization of curriculum knowledge is considered to make explicit ideas partially implicit in the Barth Scale as well as adding a new dimension. This definition of open education has three unifying closely related principles: (i) respect for students as persons; ( ii) a view of knowledge being in part a personal construct; (iii) the extent by which the contents of the curriculum stand in open relation to each other. The limitations of the study and its relevance to ACT schools are stated, and it was indicated from a survey conducted that there is a need to further develop the Barth - Young scale. The literature on open education is reviewed and criticism is examined. The most important writers on open education influencing the development of the authors ideas were Roland Barth, Tinsley Beck, Basil Bernstein, Hugh Petrie, Herbert Walberg and Susan Christie Thomas, and Bob Young."

 
 

"Green, P. A. (1980). The analysis of junior secondary science curriculum materials. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"The study was based on the assumption that the analysis and evaluation of curriculum materials was an appropriate activity to be undertaken by practising teachers. Other studies indicated that teachers perceived a need for objective analyses of curriculum materials and for procedures suitable for use by the practising teacher which could generate information on which rational decisions concerning curriculum material could be made. A variety of previously published analysis schemes were reviewed. The Sussex scheme (Eraut et al, 1975) was subsequently chosen as a basis for a scheme designed for the analysis of junior science curriculum materials"

 
 

"Hewat, P. (1980). Coping in an open plan high school: a comparative study. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

In this study an attempt was made to consider the behaviour of students in a new open plan high school and a research project involving a comparison of coping and noncoping students is described. Significant differences in scholastic behaviour between the two groups of students at the end of the first term indicated that: 1. The coping group tended to have a more internal locus of control that the non coping group. 2. The students of the coping group tended to plan for professional careers whereas those of the non coping group tended to plan for non professional careers. 3. On the whole the coping group tended to have realistic career aims in terms of their general ability. 4. The students of the coping group tended to have higher I.Q. scores than those of the non coping group. There were no significant differences between the coping and non coping groups in terms of their attitude towards the high school nor in terms of the attitude of their parents.

 
 

"Hine, A. (1980). Open education: identification and illustration of the concept. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"The main aim of this field study is to review, analyse and interpret the research literature on open education. The study also attempts to define and illustrate the concept open education. In addition the study has aimed to produce a set of resource materials which illustrate open education, namely, what it is and how it is manifested in schools. From the analysis and discussion of the relevant research literature, it would appear that it is not only plausible but possible to define the concept of open education. The defining characteristics of open education are identified through: ( i) the degree of openness of a school program; (ii) the focus on spatiality and openness in architecture; (iii) the philosophical goals, assumptions and beliefs intrinsic in the concept of open education; (iv) the observable characteristics and criteria manifested by open education. Open education can therefore be defined by assessing the extent to which a specified set of criteria are present or absent. An aspect of the curriculum may then be ranked with respect to those defining characteristics of open education. Even though the content may vary, the specified set of criteria remain intrinsic and inherent in the concept."

 
 

"Lane, R. J. (1980). The development and implementation of the ACT Schools accreditation system. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"When ACT secondary colleges opened in 1976 they constituted the first government senior secondary system in Australia to design their own curricula and assess their own students under the general direction of their own college boards and within broad system guidelines. An Accrediting Agency was set up to approve the courses of study devised by the colleges, determine assessment procedures, arrange certification of students' attainments and negotiate acceptance of students' qualifications with tertiary institutions and employers. All but one of Canberra's private schools teaching to senior secondary level also joined this accreditation system. This field study traces the genesis and development of the ACT schools accreditation system, and looks in detail at its implementation at system and college level. Although this study analyses the accreditation system in some detail, it is intended to be descriptive rather than evaluative. Information was obtained mainly from primary sources: official reports; studies and papers written by participants, surveys conducted in the colleges and original documents. Interviews were conducted but were used mainly as a check on written information."

 
 

"Moran, B. (1980). The establishment of a national curriculum centre. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"This study examines the establishment of the national curriculum centre and the historical, political, social and educational factors which contributed to the decision of the Minister for Education on the recommendation of the Australian Education Council, to establish such a centre. This study looks at the historical background which resulted in states' responsibility for education, at the Australian Constitution which avoids any mention of education but which allows Commonwealth support for education through grants to the States. It briefly traces the development of an increasing Commonwealth involvement in education, notes the very significant inquiries at national level into areas of need resulting in reports such as the Murray, Martin, Karmel and Kangan recommending Commonwealth funding for specific areas of education. This study supports the view that the Curriculum Develoment Centre, established under a 1975 Act of Parliament by that name, is a unique step in the development of a national view of education and an example of a cooperative model of development of curriculum at a national level. The role of the Australian Education Council, the Commonwealth Department of Education, the Australian Council for Educational Research and two major Unesco conferences are examined as significant influences. This study identifies other influences, political, social, educational and financial which were significant in the decision by the Government of the day to establish a national curriculum centre, and the persons and institutions which influenced that decision, and worked to achieve its establishment. The process of change is examined and the rational, reeducative and power coercive strategies used by those seeking to effect a change in school curriculum in Australia and to establish a national centre for curriculum development, are identified."

 
 

"Nevin, T. J. (1980). The aesthetic order of design, as a unifying concept for an educational programme. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

The aim of this field study is to examine the following problem: To what extent has education operated on a limited and narrow perception of design principles and if so how could the implementation of the missing principles be achieved. The field study is composed of an analysis and an educational model incorporating three levels of education. In the analysis the aesthetic principles of design are investigated in relation to natural design to find out what constitutes good design. Then these design principles are used to reflect on modern social values and socioeconomic behaviour. The insights gained from the socioeconomic sphere are then used for analysis of education curriculum planning to see whether the principles presently used can be improved upon. Finally the Educational model using aesthetics as its central value is expressed as a possible answer to the problem.

 
 

"Scrivener, J. G. (1980). An evaluation of the use of a simulation game to teach a specific topographic map reading skill. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"The field study examines the effect of the simulation game Battle Squares modified from Battleships, on the learning of the map reading skill of grid reference determination by Year 7 students. The effect of ability level and sex differences on the acquisition of grid referencing skills were also examined. Modifications produced the major features of the grid system used on Australian Survey Map sheets without substantially altering the characteristics of the game Battleships. Two treatment groups played the simulation game, one group having experienced both a pre test and a post test and the other group only the post test. A third treatment did the pre test and post test without experiencing the simulation game. Students in both treatment groups which experienced the simulation game showed significant gains in the learning of grid referencing skills. Students in upper ability level groups gained significantly better scores on the post test than students in lower ability level groups. Both upper and lower ability level groups showed significant gains. Girls performed significantly better than boys on the post test. Both boys and girls showed significant gains as a result of the simulation game experience. Ability level was a more important moderating variable than sex difference in producing variations in performance on the post test of grid referencing skills."

 
 

"Steel, J. (1980). Teaching English as a second language to children in primary schools in the Canberra Queanbeyan area. Canberra ACT, Canberra College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"The specific aim of this field study is to observe and analyse the teaching of English as a second language (ESL) in Narrabundah Primary School, administered by the Autralian Capital Territory Schools' Authority. There is an important need to find out what is happening in primary schools following English as a second language ( ESL) programs and if all children requiring ESL instruction are receiving it. Such a question may be answered by: (i) an examination of all resources available to primary schools with ESL programs; (ii) learning what methods are used to select children for ESL instruction; (iii) reviewing the qualifications and expertise of the ESL teachers; (iv) identifying the difficulties found in meeting the needs of ESL pupils; (v) studying the ESL curriculums and evaluation techniques used in the school with ESL programs. The purpose of this field study is to explore and report on the current approaches, methods, materials available and the curriculum being used in the teaching of ESL in primary schools within the Canberra / Queanbeyan area."

 

NSW

 
 

"Adams, J. (1980). Moral education in the primary schools: on what bases? North Ryde NSW, Macquarie University."

MEd

"The cognitive development approach to morality was evaluated as a basis for primary moral education through a critical literature review and a local school case study. As part of the study, similarly structured moral education programmes, differing only in degree of conflict orientation were presented weekly to 45 Year 4 and 49 Year 6 children in a NSW metropolitan primary school for 5 and 10 weeks respectively. Predictions were for: (1) Qualitative differences in moral judgements between Years 4 and 6 in the predicted Kohlberg stage / sequence. (2) The conflict instruction groups to demonstrate significantly more stage movement than direct instruction and control groups. (3) Ability and participation to relate positively to moral judgement. (4) Boys and girls to use similar moral judgements. The major data gathering instrument was an experimenter developed, group 'test', scored from derived Kohlberg stage criteria. Supplementary data were also gathered using other techniques and instruments. The efficacy of the conflict approach was not conclusively demonstrated, though other predictions were confirmed."

 
 

"Alcorta, F. X. (1980). Bilingual education in the Northern Territory. A study of a linguistic and cultural imposition. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"The bilingual education programme in the Northern Territory was initiated on the 14th December 1972. The analysis will be divided into four parts. The first examines briefly the historical and cultural context of the Northern Territory as well as the comparative methodology to be used in the dissertation. The second introduces some Third world case studies and the North American experience in bilingualism as background for the bilingual education programme in the Northern Territory. It also looks at lingustic concepts with reference to bilingualism in terms of literacy acquisition, compensatory theories in language learning and the dynamics of culture in a bilingual situation. The third part analyzes the establishment of the bilingual education programme under the central theme of cultural imposition. Finally the fourth part looks at the specific development of bilingual education in the Northern Territory and suggests some future options. There are two main concepts that will be developed through the dissertation. One of them is that Aboriginal society has for a long time been the recipient of western culture, western ideas and western values. The other is that education, whether it is bilingual or not, has been and is part and parcel of that massive cultural transfer."

 
 

"Blomberg, D. G. (1980). The development of curriculum with relation to the philosophy of the cosmonomic idea. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

PhD

"This thesis is concerned primarily with the philosophical foundations, and particularly the epistemological foundations, of a Christian approach to the school curriculum. The problems to be investigated are introduced by an examination of the forms of knowledge theory of Paul H Hirst. Hirst's position is onesided oriented to theoretical scientific knowing, and this distorts his treatment of other, nontheoretical ways of knowing. The thesis contends that it is the underlying religious motivation that is crucial. A theory which is consciously and critically rooted in a Christian confession is advocated such as that found in the philosophy of the cosmonomic idea. An investigation is made of the religious roots of knowledge, and of everyday experience. Guidelines for the construction of a Christian curriculum are formulated. A curriculum is developed for the senior secondary years of schooling, in which the demands of a theoretically oriented matriculation examination must be taken into account, but in which nonetheless the Christian confession concerning the character of life and of education must, it is accepted, always lead the way."

 
 

"Bromser, C. (1980). Pilot evaluation of the 2 Unit A Science Syllabus in NSW. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"Assessment and evaluation have been an integral part of any learning model. Testing in education is part of the process of acquiring, processing, and interpreting information that may be used in making an evaluation of the ends, means and conditions of education. All teachers of science carry out testing programmes of some kind; this study hopes to extend the view of testing and evaluation beyond that of the quick 10-minute quiz, or achievement test set at the end of a course to evaluate pupils' knowledge of the course. The major emphasis lies in curriculum evaluation, an area which has been neglected for too many years in science teaching in NSW. Curriculum evaluation is beginning to share equal importance with pupil evaluation as greater responsibility is given to the classroom teacher in choosing courses and materials. The first part of this study is a review of the origins of the 2 Unit A Science Course in NSW and an analysis of its congruence with the aims of secondary education. The development of evaluation is then discussed in terms of preparative, formative and summative evaluation and the potential roles each of these might play. Chapter II gives the details of the setting of the pilot evaluation, in terms of procedure followed, hypotheses and results from tests and questionnaires."

 
 

"Campbell, B. (1980). An integral approach to education. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"The aim of this essay is to consider the humanistic perspective on education as an initial step to approach the developing of the total human being through an Holistic approach to life. This needs to be considered in the social context of educational needs and the evolving state of being that the learner has to first encounter on the journey towards a meaningful education and consequent existence. In applying transpersonal psychologies to an educational development program where the curriculum and the student are treated as interrelated, and yet whole entities, the values of centeredness in both verbal and nonverbal areas are expanded into intuition and fantasy, as well as meditation, relaxation and mind body integration. Such a curriculum of feeling and being not only improves student / teacher communication and learning of traditional subject matter but also opens new horizons to stimulate the learning experience. The philosophies and educational practices of Sri Aurobindo are examined in light of the above."

 
 

"Craig, A. (1980). Teacher perceptions of curriculum autonomy. School of Education. North Ryde NSW, Macquarie University."

MA

"The purpose of this study was to gather information concerning curriculum autonomy from secondary school staffs across Australia. The information required was obtained from the data bank of an Australia wide research study entitled 'the Curriculum Action Project (CAP)'. The present enquiry consisted of a detailed analysis of responses to two open ended items included in the CAP questionnaires, which were returned by 586 respondents (principals, heads of department and teachers) from 98 secondary schools."

 
 

"Duncombe, J. C. (1980). Nutrition education across the curriculum: with particular reference to the multicultural nature of Australian society. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"The purpose of this essay is to examine the relevance of an across the curriculum approach to nutrition education and to indicate how this concept may be applied to curriculum development in New South Wales schools. The long essay is especially concerned with the development of a conceptual framework for nutrition education as it relates to curriculum development in the context of multicultural Australian Society. The study explores the complex relationships between culture, curriculum planning and innovation by outlining the educational attitudes of Australians in post immigration periods. This situational analysis acts as a background for understanding the relevance of theories of curriculum development and innovation due to social change. In view of contemporary events, teacher education needs to respond to the many issues and realities of our social complexity and adopt a philosophy of educating children so they may enjoy living. The importance of nutrition education is a society of 'fast foods' is discussed and the relationship between drugs, diet and human development. Speculations are made as to how changes in family structures and living arrangements may influence eating behaviour and nutrition education."

 
 

"Edwards, J. F. (1980). The Schools Commission Innovations Program in NSW, a meta evaluation. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"The evaluation of the Innovations Programs in NSW began in late 1975. The Schools Commission decided that evaluation should be a requisite for all projects. A committee was formed in 1975 to provide expertise in evaluation and to help conduct evaluations. The first task of this committee was the interpretation of the Schools Commission (1975) Guidelines. The committee initiated a series of external or augmented evaluations. The committee also defined its role, providing in the process, a document, 'Purposes and Procedures', which could act as a guide to external and internal evaluators. In recent years, the committee, responding to the Schools Commission (1977) Guidelines has set in motion an evaluation counselling service, a new form of 'assisted' evaluation for innovative projects, and has provided education in evaluation for Counsellors and Innovators through the development of materials and through workshops and conferences. A fifteen point criteria has been used to discuss the twenty one completed Augmented Evaluations in the program to date. At the same time the criteria has been used as a basis for discussion of a sample (1 in 5) of the completed inhouse evaluation reports (General Evaluations). Questionnaires have been used to ellicit further information about the impact and procedures for both types of evaluation."

 
 

"Field, B. L. (1980). A comparison of the effects of traditional and open teaching styles on the development of some language skills of Year 7 pupils in a NSW country high school. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"The intake into Year 7 of a country high school was divided into four classes: two high language ability classes and two low language ability classes. The classes were graded in terms of language ability data available from primary school testing. One each of the high and low language ability groups was taught in an open teaching style and one each was taught in a traditional teaching style. All children in the year completed a battery of tests comprising measures of reading comprehension, vocabulary, speed of reading, spelling and creative writing in the second week of February and again in the last week of November. The scores derived from the two sets of data were compared to gauge the relative effectiveness of the two teaching styles - open and traditional. The results do not confirm either teaching style as being more effective than the other in developing the language skills of Year 7 pupils. This result in itself points to there being viable alternative methods of teaching to achieve the same goal of skill in several language variables"

 
 

"Gill, J. (1980). Economics education in secondary schools: an examination of syllabus change in economics in New South Wales from 1966 to 1976. Callaghan NSW, University of Newcastle."

MA

"In Australia, the impact of the American and British developments in economics education were slow to be recorded. Several states had shown tendencies to move away from prescriptive courses in Economics. In some instances, teachers had been encouraged to participate in the development of newer courses. However, much of the impact in economics education in Australia in the period 1966 - 1976 had been focussed in Victoria and New South Wales. Developments in Victoria in the late 1960s showed the influences of some of the overseas developments in secondary school Economics. In New South Wales two official syllabus documents were prepared for the senior part of the secondary school system between 1966 and 1976. Each was designed as a two year course and each had provision for a differentiated level of candidature for the final external examination. The development and implementation of these syllabi in New South Wales from 1966 to 1976 is the major focus of this study."

 
 

"Harrison, M. E. (1980). Towards empirically based curriculum theory: a participant observation study of school based curriculum decision making. North Ryde NSW, Macquarie University."

PhD

"This study concerns the theory of decision making in curriculum related matters at the school level. It embraces variables such as decision making theory, the school as a social system, and curriculum models. Ethnographic methods were employed in a pilot study of school based curriculum decision making. The results of the pilot study lead to modification to the research methodology for the second stage of the study. The second stage included the role of consultancy in the full case study. The data collected is analysed giving rise to recommendations for further research in this area."

 
 

"Matthews, B. J. (1980). Application of mastery learning methodology to the teaching of gross motor skills. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"This study was conducted in an effort to relate teaching strategies involved in mastery learning theory to the teaching of gross motor skills. Learning for mastery (LFM) was developed by Bloom (1968) into a working model from the conceptual model of school learning developed by Carroll (1963). The earliest attempts to use this working model were centred upon the need of individual children to develop proficiency in academic skills. Recently the strategy has been expanded to include a wider variety of schoolroom - based subjects. This essay suggests a further extension of strategies to include psychomotor skills. A review was made of the available literature on LFM, the existing Physical Education syllabi for New South Wales in both primary and secondary schools and an examination of texts recommended and currently used in those Colleges offering specialist teacher education programs for physical educationists. This review led the author to believe that the style of physical education currently being offered in the schools of New South Wales was derived from overseas models, particularly from those offered in the United States of America and is based on a 'play games' philosophy. The author believes that teacher education institutions in New South Wales need to develop in their students, philosophies that will guarantee to each individual pupil the opportunity to develop psychomotor abilities and basic skills to optimum levels."

 
 

"Matthews, M. R. (1980). Epistemology and education: a critique of analytic philosophy of education and the proposal of an objectivist theory of knowledge with an examination of its implications for educational theory. Kensington NSW, University of New South Wales."

PhD

"This thesis argues that the epistemology dominant in contemporary analytic philosophy of education - Paul Hirst's 'Forms of Knowledge' thesis - is fundamentally mistaken. It is an empiricist philosophy in the narrow, and traditional, sense, it takes tests against experience as definitive for knowledge claims. It is empiricist in a wider sense, in that its epistemology is subject - centred, it takes the beliefs and mind states of subjects and their justification as the central task of epistemology. Narrow and wide empiricism are both rejected in this thesis. Considerations in the history and philosophy of science are used to establish this claim. An objectivist, nonsubject centred, epistemology is proposed. This takes human knowledge to be a creation of human cognitive activity, such activity having necessarily historical, social and practical dimensions. Epistemology is two sided. It must be an account of knowledge on the one hand and an account of ignorance on the other hand. Thus epistemology requires a theory of ideology. Such a theory is developed in this thesis. It ties ideology to human practices, and ultimately to the form of productive practices in society. Marx's account of the errors of the classical economists is taken as paradigmatic of accounts of theoretical ideology. This thesis proposes an alternative theory of knowledge and subsequently of schooling, to that of analytic philosophy of education, the methodological issue of the appraisal of theories is generated. The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes (MSRP), outlined by Imre Lakatos, is used here to suggest that the Marxist research program in education is progressive, whilst the analytic programme is degenerating."

 
 

"Maxwell, T. W. (1980). Curriculum development processes and the factors affecting them in a secondary school. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"The purposes of this investigation were: (a) to describe the processes of school based curriculum development (SBCD), and (b) to describe the factors which affected these processes. A case study using the techniques of participant observation was undertaken over a period of twenty months. Data was provided via observational, diary records, interviews, documents and surveys. The scope and level of involvement in SBCD presupposed whole school involvement. Two design processes (cycles) and the beginnings of a third were delineated. The first corresponded most closely to a Rational Planning Model (RPM) and the second, problem solving. Both cycles were 'managed' using time goals coupled to the cycle stages. At the day to day level of curriculum development process, decision making, tactics, discussion, problem solving and social interaction were important. Both process types depended heavily upon the context of the school. Time was a limiting factor to some extent, but support in the form of time and resource provision was provided from a nearby university via a 'link' person. Teachers' perceptions were that considerable professional development had taken place due to their involvement. Probably the most crucial hindrance was the practical syndrome for which criteria were established. Another important difficulty was the problem of implementation of carefully formulated plans when these plans impinge upon areas of traditional teacher autonomy. Some of the implications of SBCD in New South Wales were discussed and recommendations made for further research."

 
 

"McLeod, N. R. (1980). The development of drama in Australian primary schools. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"This study is concerned only with the history of drama and dramatic method in primary schools in Australia - roughly ages five to twelve. It treats these topics as they developed from within the primary school over a period of thirty years, c.1947 - c.1977. This approach considers the internal day to day use of drama in a child's development. An examination of those external influences that come into the school periodically (eg theatre in education groups) lies beyond the scope of this investigation. Also excluded was the role of drama in schools for the mentally and physically handicapped. The development of drama in the primary schools of one state is often reflected in those of another. Where this occurs, detailed analyses have been avoided to prevent needless repetition of particular trends. Treated in greater detail are those states where information was more accessible."

 
 

"Navin, F. A. (1980). Towards the integration of science in the total curriculum. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"Within schooling there are centralised ideas which are basic fundamentals to the development of the individual child. Integrated courses involving science as the main component of the core allow for the whole curriculum to be seen as a unity within the present society. The total curriculum has not been defined within the essay itself, but the term covers the complete range of realms of meaning, from Kindergarten to Year 12. The orientation thus is on the 'whole learning experience' and this trend has been advocated in the official statement of aims. In any event, whatever is developed by the school is meant to be regarded in a holistic way. Primary schooling shows evidence of the total curriculum because of the basic core areas of Investigating, Communicating and Expressing. This is aided by the one teacher who can have unlimited flexibility and a variety of approaches, suitably adopted to the appropriate stage of development. This integration is not yet so in the secondary school because of the restrictions of the timetable and entrenched disciplines. However, the tacit removal of subject barriers is a genuine attempt to obtain some form of coordination. There is the suggestion that this total curriculum of learning experiences can be implemented via a transitional interdisciplinary, or multidisciplinary, or maybe an integrated approach in some isolated area. An alternate junior high school proposal could lead to developments in a different direction."

 
 

"Nott, S. A. (1980). Timetable analysis of six Catholic secondary schools to assess curriculum development from 1976 to 1979. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"The aim of this research was to assess the extent of curriculum development from 1976 to 1979 in six Catholic Secondary Schools. The schools, all having less than 400 students, are located in four towns in a single Diocese in northern New South Wales. The project set out to ascertain the type and extent of development through study of the schools' timetables. The analytical instrument employed was a Curriculum Notation developed by T I Davies in 1969. Additional data was obtained from interviews of school principals. It was hypothesised, largely because of the schools' autonomy and increasing proportion of lay teachers, that the timetables of the six schools would indicate organisational changes brought about by school based curriculum initiatives and community involvement. The analyses indicate that the hypothesis is substantiated but in a very limited way. None of the schools showed substantial evidence of curriculum development in their timetables. Two schools indicated significant progress in the development of school community relationships. The little evidence of change noted from the study suggests that the increasing number of lay staff has had little or no bearing on curriculum development in schools and the incentive and influence of Federal funding has not been a potent force in curriculum development in the sample schools. Indicating as it does that there has been very little organizational change in the sample schools over the period 1976 to 1979, the study suggests that these Catholic Secondary Schools are 'conservative' in both outlook and operation."

 
 

"Perrott, C. (1980). The context of the operational curriculum in the primary school and its impingements: a study of stated curriculum procedures and behaviours at the school and classroom level in a sample of primary school teachers, and of the factors related to and perceived as influencing these procedures and behaviours. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a sample of primary schools, the area of implementation of the curriculum at the school and classroom level. Research was not undertaken into either the intentions or the outcomes of curriculum implementation. The objectives were to collect data on characteristics of schools, teachers and classes, teacher behaviours in curriculum planning, organization of content and teaching procedures; and teacher perceptions of strength of influences on these behaviours and procedures. The main study's sample consisted of a two stage randomly selected sample of full time classroom primary teachers in the North West Education Region of New South Wales."

 
 

"Rotter, A. (1980). The education of the gifted child in the primary school. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MA

"This essay examines the education of the gifted learner of high intellectual ability in the primary school. The concept of giftedness is discussed as are genetic determinants. Identification of giftedness is considered. The essay looks at education for the individual and special needs of the gifted learner. It also looks at the role of the teacher and other professionals and finally an attempt is made to draw human and material resources outside the formal educational structure into working alongside the school to provide appropriate educational opportunities. It is acknowledged that the child's environment is made up of the home, the school and the community and the child must therefore be educated within the context of his own personal needs and aptitudes; and within constraints imposed by the home, and the school and by the society in which he lives."

 
 

"Stewart, G. A. (1980). Structural unemployment and education. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"Long term and serious structural unemployment caused by administration of massive doses of technology into a mature consumer capitalist society will force mass alienation to become subjectified and cause the inevitable overthrow of the present system. Throughout recorded history we have seen the replacement of successive forms of social organisation, each in some way purporting to advance the human condition. The social revolution which will depose capitalism is rapidly approaching, as the system can no longer answer the basic economic questions it must. Education must necessarily be affected by the fundamental changes which are postulated. In the short run, just as politicians representing the powerful regard political conservatism as the appropriate response, so reaction is seen by educational administrators as necessary to combat rapid change. This change appears to be heading towards a disruptive confrontation between the powerful few and the disenfranchised masses. However, if enough critically aware and like - minded educators can influence the education systems of the West, a peaceful revolution may be possible. To achieve a peaceful revolution, truly enlightened education must be allowed to occur. Classroom theory and practice must work towards a situation in which new meanings can be created."

 
 

"Stone, R. (1980). Administrative implications of the impact of cultural and social factors on tribal Aboriginal children's will to learn. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd Admin

"A major premise of this study is that schools are organised not only to help teachers teach, but also to help children to learn. A review of Bruner's Theory of the Will to Learn, and assuming the Will to Learn is common to all children, suggests that there is a similar capacity for learning in tribal Aboriginal children. This supposition was tested and it was found that tribal Aboriginal children possess a very strong will and desire to learn. The study was carried out in North East Arnhem Land and is based on data collected from five Aboriginal outstation communities. A central settlement school was administratively responsible for the educational programmes and servicing of the outstation schools, and for their subsequent development as they were established. The problem examined is how to organise the administration of the central school in order to meet effectively the growing educational needs of both the main settlement and the developing outstation schools. The latter task forms the major problem investigated in this study. It was established that the outstation communities regard their schools as an important part of their lifestyle and actively support their operation. The implications for the central settlement school, its principal and staff are challenging. The existing administrative organisation was established to meet the needs of the central settlement; the task has changed, and is now much more complex and requires a far more flexible approach than that for which it was originally designed."

 
 

"Wilson, W. R. (1980). Geography in primary education: new insights into the changing nature of geography and curriculum for Australian schools. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"The position adopted in this essay is that the structure of knowledge is a highly significant variable in curriculum planning. Such structure is best exhibited through the classification of knowledge into disciplines. Disciplines are dynamic and the changes that occur should be reflected in school curricula. Geography is one area of knowledge that has undergone considerable change. In an attempt to argue the place of Geography within a disciplines of knowledge framework for curriculum planning and development in the primary school, the distinguishing characteristics of a discipline are analysed. Logically, the thrust of the argument addresses itself to the issue of whether Geography meets the criteria identified to give it discipline status. A searching examination reveals that Geography is a discipline. On this basis, Geography can claim a place alongside other disciplines in a disciplines of knowledge context for curriculum planning. The appropriateness of Geography in the Primary School Curriculum is discussed with a particular emphasis on its contribution to selected subject areas. A curriculum process model is proposed as a means of incorporating Geography in the primary school curriculum within a school based curriculum development context."

 

QLD

 
 

"Harris, J. W. (1980). Ethnoscience and its relevance for education in traditional Aboriginal communities. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEd

"In considering the importance of Aboriginal knowledge in the education of children of traditionally oriented Aboriginal communities, this thesis draws on Groote Eylandt ethnoscience, discussing several fields of Groote Eylandt knowledge. The context of the thesis, Groote Eylandt and the Groote Eylandters, is therefore first described. The existence and validity of significant Aboriginal knowledge has wide implications for education in traditionally oriented Aboriginal communities. Interference between Western knowledge systems and Aboriginal knowledge systems causes communication breakdown between English speaking teachers and vernacular speaking pupils. The limited educational achievement of Aboriginal school children can partly be attributed to the failure of schools to recognize the prior knowledge of the child. When Aboriginal children enter school, cognitive development has already begun in the context of Aboriginal knowledge systems. Later cognitive development must build upon this base, most particularly in the early years of schooling but also in appropriate contexts even after English competence is acquired. Using Aboriginal knowledge as a medium for cognitive development demands not only the close involvement of Aboriginal people in the school but also an understanding of Aboriginal knowledge by nonAboriginal teachers. Appropriate preservice training can provide the skills to set about acquiring it. Recorded information is a valuable source for the newly appointed teacher but finally the Aboriginal people are themselves the best source of Aboriginal knowledge and the best arbiters of what aspects of Aboriginal knowledge are most appropriate in school programs. Teachers can only acquire linguistic and ethnoscientific competence by remaining in communities longer than is currently the norm."

 
 

"Toohey, M. P. (1980). The teaching of religion in state schools in Australia - 1821 - 1977: a curriculum perspective. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEd

"Discusses the problem of the teaching of religion in state schools in Australia. A brief historical outline with emphasis on the period 1826 and 1872 is given. Political background encompassing the secular acts and the case for the teaching of religion in State schools as argued in the report of the Russell Committee (Religious Education in State Schools, 1972) in Victoria. Reviews reports of ministerial committees of enquiry set up in the various states since 1970 into the teaching of religion in state schools in Australia. The writer looks at the problem of curriculum design for the teaching of religion in a pluralist society in the state schools in Australia. The conclusion emphasises again the notion of the relationship between religion and culture and the implications of this for curriculum design in religious education."

 
 

"Williams, C. (1980). Curriculum change in primary classrooms. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEd

"The major purposes of the study described here were to identify those external and internal pressures of curriculum change, acting upon a small group of classroom teachers. Through this case study, it was hoped to identify some of the possible processes and sources of conflict in the course of adopting curriculum changes. Recent literature related to the area of curriculum has demonstrated an increased awareness of, and emphasis upon, the central role of the classroom teacher in curriculum change. However, much comment has also suggested that classrooms generally evidence only superficial changes in curriculum. In order to understand curriculum change at the classroom level, it is therefore necessary to examine the teacher and the classroom, and thereby identify those pressures acting upon the classroom teacher in relation to curriculum change. The external pressures acting upon the teachers studied are not only themselves conflicting, but have brought the teachers into a state of conflict regarding what and how they teach. This conflict has been further increased by the internal pressures acting upon the teachers. Internal pressures which have been identified include lack of commitment to innovative curriculum, lack of knowledge of innovative curricula (particularly mathematics and science), and lack of skills for implementation of the new curricula. The results of this study strongly suggest that whereas the new syllabuses may be formally adopted at the central level, they may not really be implemented in the classroom."

 

SA

 
 

"Gale, J. A. (1980). Freedom and authority in schools: an investigation of theory and practice in South Australian secondary schools, with particular reference to the perceptions and attitudes of Year 12 students. Adelaide SA, University of Adelaide."

MEd

"The thesis records and comments upon the climate of opinion in South Australia with respect to questions of freedom and authority from the late sixties to 1974. Thus it includes material prior to the South Australian Director - General's Memorandum on Freedom and Authority of August 1970 and material relevant to its implementation between 1970 and 1974. The question of student rights within the schools is emphasized. The changing role of the senior secondary student is reviewed as is the growth of student activism in Adelaide. This is linked to the general movement for democracy in education and to the views on this question of principals and teachers. Important differences emerged between the perceptions of principals and students, the former perceiving more progressive features than did the students. This was particularly noticeable with perceptions of communication and of whether the school climate was democratic or authoritarian. Another difference was between girls and boys, the former showing stronger 'will for change'. Smaller schools, generally, reported better communication, and one school, H, was found to have some distinctively open characteristics."

 
 

"Harrison, H. R. (1980). The development of primary school science in South Australia, 1875 to 1972. Adelaide SA, University of Adelaide."

MEd

"This thesis examines the development of science in the South Australian state primary school curriculum in depth for the period 1875 to 1972, with some consideration of the pre 1875 period. Subjects which included aspects of science, or were regarded as at least partly scientific in purpose, are considered, in relation to changing concepts of science and education. The changes in content and teaching methodologies of these scientific subjects are analysed, together with their status and relation to the total primary curriculum. Major factors affecting the progress of primary school science, especially the training of teachers, the examination system, and the Education Department's financial policies concerning provision of equipment, are examined. During this period the content of science courses changed from discrete, unconnected object lessons to something approaching a coherent general science course. Other subjects with a scientific component entered the curriculum from around the turn of the century. The study attempts to identify the causes of curriculum change in the South Australian education system, it assesses the influence of overseas ideas and practices and of other Australian state systems and policies and the impact of local political and economic conditions."

 
 

"Sullivan, M. J. (1980). Teacher aims for a matriculation chemistry course, with special reference to critical thinking ability in a science setting, and possible influences of the external examination on achievement of aims. Adelaide SA, University of Adelaide."

PhD

"This study, called the Chemsa study, set out to determine: (i) the course aims of teachers of matriculation chemistry, (ii) how well these are reflected in and facilitated by the course syllabus, (iii) the influences of the examination on teaching practices and outcomes, (iv) how well the teachers' nonexamination aims were being achieved. Literature studies were carried out to compare: (i) the present and likely future examination practices in South Australia with those of other States of Australia and places overseas (ii) the aims of teachers involved in the Chemsa study with those considered by science educators to be desirable for this type of course. Investigations were carried out to discover whether there were absolute differences in standards of performance of candidates in the matriculation chemistry examinations of 1975, 1976 and 1977. The evidence produced was not conclusive, but gave rise to further questions. Conclusions have been drawn regarding the success of the chemistry course and teachers in promoting various outcomes."

 

VIC

 
 

"Atkinson, E. P. (1980). Instruction - memory - performance (manuscript): the influence of practical work in science on memory and performance. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

PhD

"This study concerns the learning of scientific subject matter. In general, previous research on learning has been based on a two element paradigm of instruction affecting performance, but the paradigm used here emphasizes the importance of memory as a mediator between instruction and performance. Gagne and White postulated four types of structures in memory: propositions, intellectual skills, images, episodes. The existence of these structures and their relationship with performance was investigated. An individual' s preferred way of dealing with cognitive tasks over time on an imagery verbal dimension was also investigated. Instruction was presented by using five program booklets. The two science experiments were either carried out by students in small groups or demonstrated by the class teacher. Instruction was administered by two science teachers responsible for four unstreamed Year 10 classes in a metropolitan state coeducational high school. Each teacher taught two classes that were randomly assigned to either the small group or teacher demonstration treatment. The sample comprised a total of 78 students. Interviews were conducted by seven interviewers."

 
 

"Belshaw, R. R. (1980). Career education in Victorian schools. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"The writer uses survey data, qualified with personal observations from his involvement in career education since its inception, to show the range of quality and the general lack of adequate administrative support in the early implementation of the innovation in Victorian schools. The later diffusion and development of the innovation in Victoria is described and evaluated: the writer's aim being to supplement material already published. The study reports on the increasing provision of professional training and pays tribute to the work of career educators in overcoming to some extent the historical constraints in the fragmented Victorian education system. The writer gives personal observations of Victorian career educators' recent successful collaboration with influential representatives of the community interested in the improvement of education practice. Information about the modern professional training of career educators, based on substantial investigation and evaluation, and now being implemented in Victoria is also discussed in the thesis."

 
 

"Besley, J. W. (1980). An investigation into the introduction of economics into the curriculum for pupils aged 12-14 years in secondary schools in London and South East England. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"This thesis investigates the nature and extent of teaching Economics to pupils aged 12-14 years in secondary schools in London and South East England. Four schools in the region are used as case studies to examine the issue of teaching Economics to younger pupils. The courses operating in these schools are examined to show their objectives, content, methods and assessment procedures. An attempt is made to evaluate their performance. The influences, pressures and constraints which affected teachers in introducing the courses are also explored. The extent to which the Economics Association and literature in the field influenced teachers in introducing the courses is a question of special interest to be examined. The results of the investigation indicate that Economics is being taught successfully to younger pupils in the four schools examined."

 
 

"Bourke, S. F. (1980). Numeracy in schools: an integrated approach to community expectations student assessment and error diagnosis. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"This study has three major strands: the framing and general acceptability of a functional definition of numeracy, the development, application and analysis of criterion referenced tests of some of the domains of numeracy, and the use of these tests in identifying individual student difficulties in numeracy. Detailed information on the perceived importance of a range of 13 numeracy tasks and items was obtained by a questionnaire administered to small numbers of randomly selected members of groups such as employee and employer organisations, primary and secondary teachers, college lecturers and parents. Two age levels were selected to provide information on student performance in numeracy. More than 6600 students aged 10 years and 6200 students aged 14 years in normal schooling were tested throughout Australia to determine whether they could master tasks based on specific content areas, abilities and usages related to numeracy. Careless errors and algorithm errors were also major causes of difficulty for these students. It was clear that the students needed constant encouragement if they were to attempt to use and practise the algorithms they had been taught in place of the inefficient, error prone methods they seemed to prefer."

 
 

"Bunker, P. M. E. (1980). A policy analysis of the Victorian Government's school council legislation. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"This study examines the content and implications of the Education ( School Councils) Act 1975, within a policy analysis framework. The framework divides policy analysis into two parts: formulation and implementation. The formulation phase looks at the period 1971 - 1975 up until the drafting of the aforementioned Act. It traces the origins of the movement for an increased local role in school governance in Australia. It specifically looks at the interplay between parent, teacher and government representatives who participated in the discussions leading to the drafting of the Bill. This section is historical in content and centres completely on Victoria. The implementation phase looks at the provisions of the Act from several perspectives. First, it examines the changes in powers and membership of school councils, when compared with the regulations in existence prior to the Education (School Councils) Act 1975. Second, using the key concept of power, which is defined in decision making terms, the Act is examined in a more critical vein. It is suggested that it was never an intention of the official government policy makers to transfer significant amounts of decision making power to school councils, despite policy statements to the contrary."

 
 

"Butyn, K. S. (1980). The curriculum reform movement: pupil individualism, teacher professionalism and the development of curriculum at Paisley High School. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"The theme of this thesis is the development and character of the curriculum reform movement in Victoria in the late 1960's and early 1970's. Its general character is described, and its underlying structure as an emergence and redefinition of pupil individualism and teacher professionalism are analyzed. The development of a particular school, Paisley High School, established in this period is described as having its own characteristics but at the same time as symbolic of the movement. The reform movement is shown to have the strengths of individualism and teacher responsibility and the weaknesses of lack of structure. A conflict between the expectations of Paisley High School parents and those of the reform movement is also indicated. While the movement did not achieve all of its objectives its successes are indicated."

 
 

"Cosgriff, R. O. (1980). Uses made of students' writing: implications in terms of language and learning. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"Students in our schools do a great deal of writing - writing has always been regarded highly in our educational system. We, as teachers, are responsible for giving our students most of the writing that they do and, because of this, we need to answer some pertinent questions: e.g. Do we know why we give our students the writing? Are we aware of where writing fits in the overall learning process of our students? Is what we are actually doing in the classroom with respect to our students' writing the same as what we think we are doing? This study is concerned with questions such as these in order to determine what is current practice, and to critically discuss such practice in terms of its impact on the learning success of students. What then, are the uses made of students' writing? Why do teachers set it? How do they mark it? What uses are made of it by teachers after they have marked it and handed it back? Two research reports are considered in detail which focus on such issues in order to determine what is happening across the curriculum at about middle secondary school level."

 
 

"Faichney, G. W. (1980). An examination of the perceptions of children, parents and teachers of the distinctive features of the social studies program, Man: A Course of Study. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"This thesis attempts to define the perceptions of children, parents and teachers of what it is that is distinctive about the social studies program, Man: A Course of Study. Since 1975, following on the introduction of this program into the elementary school systems of both this country and the USA several groups of people have criticised both the development of the program and what they fear to be its outcomes for the children who participate in it. In concept, this project attempted to discern the views of those who have had some direct experience with the program. The procedure adopted was that of a case study. A group of children from Donvale Primary School, together with their parents and teachers were questioned, observed and interviewed to determine what they thought of the program. As far as possible the research methods used were a combination of ethnographic methods and the more formal research techniques. In conclusion, the most distinctive feature commented on by the informants was the development of an awareness, understanding and knowledge of the needs of other cultural groups and an appreciation of the reasons why such groups are different from ourselves."

 
 

"Feehan, A. (1980). Crisis point and catharsis: a study of history teaching in Victoria. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

Deals with the teaching of history in Victoria covering data collected from questionnaires. Offers recommendations in light of results of questionnaire data.

 
 

"Fennessy, D. (1980). Curriculum change in technical schools: a study of official policies in relation to teacher opinion. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"This was a study of various aspects of technical education in Victoria in the period 1969 to 1975. It examined the reactions of teachers to the problems affecting the curriculum in junior technical schools and compared these with official policies of the Technical Schools Division of the Education Department. The study was based on and was an extension of a model used by Bates (1976) to examine secondary education in New Zealand in terms of four major problems. These problems of goal specification, integration, pattern maintenance and adaptation were found to be relevant to Victorian technical teachers and central administrators in the period studied. A major conclusion indicated that a simple, global description of the approaches to the problems of the period by those involved would be inadequate. Both teachers and administrators appeared to support progressive solutions to goal specification, integration and pattern maintenance."

 
 

"Ginger, M. G. (1980). The establishment of specialist art and craft rooms in Victorian State primary schools. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"In its early days the theory and practice of art education as a state primary school subject in Victoria was influenced by ideological pressures imported from abroad and implemented through a forceful central administration. In later years a group of local art educators slowly developed and secured influence over the subject. That influence came to have a concrete effect through the initiatives of some parent groups during the changing social climate of the 1960s when a new standard for art and craft facilities was achieved. During the 1970s the political opportunism of a governing party facing a state election introduced a new policy that promised to provide an art and craft facility for every state school with a significant enrolment. The honoring of that promise guaranteed the provision of suitable facilities to meet the needs and expectations of existing art education programs. It would therefore appear that through a substantial commitment to art education, the subject had secured an important place in the primary school curriculum."

 
 

"Hamerston, M. T. (1980). The public examination of English in Victoria: a study of one external influence on the secondary school english curriculum 1944 - 1974. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"The secondary school English curriculum was determined by groups outside schools during the period 1944 - 1974. External domination of teaching content and methodology was ensured by a system of Public and Matriculation Examinations which empowered agents of the universities to prescribe courses and to assess students' performance in those courses. The University of Melbourne exercised these functions through its Professorial Board and the Schools Board before relinquishing its powers to the Victorian Universities and Schools Examination Board in 1965. Statute and tradition allowed these bodies to establish themselves as a centre apart from schools, and to legitimise their authority through the institutionalised processes of prescription, examination and review of performance. The effect of these processes was to subordinate schools, teachers and pupils. External examinations dictated that the English classroom was a place where pupils met to prepare for these encounters with examinations rather than to explore the nature and richness of experience through literature and their own use of language for real ends."

 
 

"Hampel, B. (1980). Social ideologies in two sets of mulicultural curricular materials. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"The large increase in the non-British proportion of Australia's population since 1945 has created a demand for greater recognition in schools of cultural difference and a reaffirmation of the goal of equality of educational opportunitity. The first of the two sets of curricular materials examined, Ethnic Australia, develops an Eurocentric view of exploration and interethnic relations favourable to the needs of capitalist economic growth. In its presentation Italian and Greek cultures, it highlights and reinforces those attitudes and behaviours which are most conducive to an acceptance of competitive individualism under capitalism. The materials entitled Australia: A Multicultural Society, offers a view of culture and a picture of the material circumstances of Greeks and other migrants in Australia which accords with the most recent and carefully conducted research. In delivering a sustained attack on the inadequate provision for migrants in this country, they expose children to a variety of ideological perspectives gleaned from the media, ethnic communities and the peer culture. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the problems of construction and dissemination of critical curricular materials in a publicly funded educational system."

 
 

"Hesketh, B. C. (1980). Computing in secondary schools; internal and external views. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"Following an approach to local secondary schools by Deakin University in March 1977, opinions on various computing issues were sought from the teachers at secondary schools in Geelong, and from members of the Geelong branch of the Australian Society of Accountants. A preliminary survey was conducted and analysis revealed some significant relationships. The study examines the rationale for computing in schools, looks briefly at the situation which prevails in Victorian schools and elsewhere, and explains some of the technical factors associated with computers in education. Also, the critical need for training teachers in computing topics is discussed. It is likely that within the next decade computers will alter the very fabric of society as we presently know it. These changes will be so far reaching that schools must be in a position to prepare society's new members for what they will find in that society. Unless the schools system as a whole can respond to this need it will fail to meet what may be one of its greatest challenges."

 
 

"Howells, J. C. (1980). Religious education Victoria's State schools 1959 to 1979. An analysis and interpretation of the decline of an institution. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"The Protestant churches of Victoria slowly developed a voluntary religious instruction system in State schools following the 'free, compulsory and secular' Education Act of 1872. By the mid 1930s weekly instruction was being provided for some 80 of pupils and this percentage was maintained until the mid 1960s. After 1967, however, the system suffered a rapid and severe decline, especially in postprimary schools. Thomas Luckmann's sociological theory of religious change in the modern world provides an analytical framework for interpreting the changes experienced by Victoria's religious instruction system. It is suggested that though the changes were determined in part by educational developments, at a deeper level they sprang from religious changes in the community. In particular, it is argued that the dramatic slump in religious instruction after 1967 was indicative of a changed status for Protestantism in Victoria."

 
 

"Jordan, L. (1980). Literature and truth: an analysis of the nature of literary truth, together with some implications for the teaching of literature. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"The question of literary truth is a vexed one, due in part to the confusion of language, and in part to the confusion as to what constitutes a work of literature and what constitutes truth. An analysis of literature suggests that it speaks not merely through words and sentences but through shared human experience. In order for the concept of literary truth to be significant, then it must relate to what is significant in the work of literature itself, what it contributes to our knowledge and experience of the world. Trust is not monolithic. There are different senses in which a work of literature may be said to be true, although the point of the concept remains the same. In teaching literature, it is important to look at the work as a whole, and to recognize the contribution it can make to the curriculum. In particular, this requires the acknowledgement of literature as a source of truth."

 
 

"Larsen, E. W. (1980). A study of the effects of streaming in years nine and ten mathematics. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"At a secondary school in Melbourne a majority of the mathematics teachers favoured the introduction of streaming in Year 9 and 10 Mathematics to replace the established mixed ability system. This study was done in conjunction with the changeover with the intention of providing a measure of the advantage (if any) to be gained from streaming. It covered two topics in the normal mathematics programme and focused on achievement and attitude. Before each topic pretests of achievement were given on which students were ranked into three ability levels, and then randomly assigned to streamed or mixed groups. Teachers were also randomly assigned to the classes and then reassigned for the next topic. Teaching was as near as possible undifferentiated across groups, levels, and years. The findings indicated that no significant gains or losses in achievement could be attributed to streaming across ability levels. Attitude measures were made using the semantic differential technique but comparisons yielded no significant differences or patterns of difference between streamed and mixed groups."

 
 

"Nicholas, H. R. (1980). A model for the teaching of German as a community language in the primary school: a preliminary study. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MA

"This work will examine CLIPS programs as they are presently operating in Victoria and suggest a model which would enable such programs to derive more benefits from the communities which support them, and to allow the communities to participate in those benefits. There are four distinct aspects to Community Languages In Primary Schools (CLIPS) programs which are often confused, leading to lack of clarity in the requirements and objectives set by the school community. A CLIPS program can serve either as a culture or a language program or it can serve as both at the same time if it is structured carefully enough. The question of language maintenance or language development focusses first on the time of commencement of the program. For a child whose first language is not English, a maintenance program must by definition begin on the first day of schooling. For a second language development program, the optimum time to introduce the language other than English to the child is a matter for debate and depends on the ultimate style and objectives of the program. In Australia we have a need for all four aspects of a CLIPS program (cultural / linguistic / maintenance / development). However, these aspects need to be emphasized in slightly different ways for different children."

 
 

"Northfield, J. R. (1980). ASEP in Victorian secondary schools: a study of the impact and implementation of a curriculum project. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

PhD

"This study was designed to investigate the impact and implementation of ASEP in Victorian secondary schools. ASEP was described as a complex curriculum project facilitating a reconsideration of the classroom organization for the teaching of secondary science. The materials were introduced at a time when schools are being encouraged to accept greater responsibility for curriculum. A series of research questions were developed from an analysis of the literature on curriculum innovation and a review of the ASEP materials. These questions provided the focus for a study which was organized in two distinct phases. The first phase involved a questionnaire survey of 151 science teachers from 121 high schools. The second phase involved an investigation of 23 teachers implementing an ASEP unit. The data gathering extended over one year with the implementation phase requiring a monitoring of classrooms for up to seven weeks. A wide variety of data gathering strategies were employed (eg questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations) and the data analysis techniques used included factor analyses and ANOVA and ANCOVA models. All findings were interpreted and discussed in a period of rapid development of ideas in areas of curriculum innovation, implementation and teacher education related to curriculum development."

 
 

"Paul, D. G. (1980). Using local history in a year nine course. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"Deals with the teaching of history in schools, with particular relation to Year 9 students. The thesis points out that as there is a move away from national and grand scale histories that there is a need to teach local history as part of the history curriculum with some emphasis on histories of groups, social classes and specific issues. The thesis also argues that as Australian history is by nature more local than regional it should be so taught. Looks at the aims and objectives involved in the teaching of history in the school. Looks at the value of promoting the enquiry approach to teaching history and of stimulating exploratory activity inside and outside the classroom."

 
 

"Rogerson, G. A. (1980). A decade of definition: a critical history of the tertiary orientation programme in Victoria, 1970-80. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"The Tertiary Orientation Programme (TOP) has been conducted in Victorian technical institutions since 1971 as a preparation for tertiary level studies. This work traces the development of the TOP and argues that the elements which underly the nature and strength of the program, and which are the basis of its success, have never been developed to give the TOP a distinctive identity. The peculiar mixture of ingredients - necessity, expediency and opportunity - which brought about the commencement of the program have characterized its development ever since. A series of encounters with the advanced colleges, the VUSEB, the VUAC, the VISE and the ISCUE, educational bodies and committees in Victoria, have seen the TOP reshaped to fit the circumstances on each occasion. The emergence of TAFE as a recognized post-secondary sector of education in Australia along with the universities and the advanced colleges, has been the factor which should have seen the TOP reshaped to give it a distinctive identity, but this has not been the case. The thesis identifies certain elements which can be developed to give the TOP a definition and direction that is not only compatible with TAFE access concepts but is the key to the program's future survival. These elements are drawn together to form a coherent philosophy for the TOP as a TAFE access program in the 'eighties."

 
 

"Spear, S. M. (1980). School based curriculum development its introduction and implementation in Victorian State high schools 1968 to 1978. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"Curriculum reform in the nineteen sixties was in part a response to economic and technological change. In examining the antecedents to secondary curriculum reform in Victoria, I have discussed educational as well as economic factors. Secondary curriculum reform was closely associated with the Director of Secondary Education, Ron Reed, the Curriculum Advisory Board he established, and the introduction of a policy of school based curriculum development. By 1973 the reform movement had reached its peak. Some schools in developing the new curriculum, and the experiences of one such school, Ferntree Gully High School, are examined in detail. It is my hypothesis that without the power within the school to revise the curriculum in the light of experience, continued development could not have taken place. The impact of the reform poliy, although primarily concerned with curriculum content and organization, was on the practices and organization of the school as a whole. In order to understand this it is necessary to see the relationship between curriculum content and classroom interaction and between curriculum organization and school organization. These relationships, implicit in the work of the CAB, are only now beginning to emerge in curriculum theory."

 
 

"Stove, J. D. (1980). Overall educational objectives for students at a particular high school as perceived by the students, their parents and their teachers. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"One major purpose of this study was to compare the opinions of students, their parents and the teaching staff, on desirable overall educational objectives for students at a particular high school. The comparisons were made at all six form levels in the school. A second major purpose was to assess the stability of opinions at each form level after the elapse of twelve months. The investigation was carried out in a traditional, coeducational, suburban high school, situated in a middle class area. Respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 27 statements of educational objectives for students, and responses were made on a five-point scale of importance. Significant differences between the means of responses of parents and teachers were few in number and generally arose from teachers giving lower ratings than parents in junior forms and higher ratings than parents in senior forms. Teachers attached greater importance to cultural objectives than parents or students, but teachers, parents and students tended to agree on the importance of artistic objectives. Parents and teachers consistently attached greater importance than students to attitudes to school and learning. Some significant differences between parents and teachers again rose because teachers gave lower ratings than parents in the junior forms and higher ratings in the senior forms. Students consistently attached less importance than parents and teachers to social objectives reflecting general community concern and there were no significant differences between teachers and parents. Students also attached less importance than parents or teachers to social skills of a personal developmental kind."

 
 

"Tomkins, M. R. (1980). The senior high school in western suburban Melbourne, a feasibility study. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of establishing a Senior High School in the Western suburbs which would enable the Education Department to offer the widest possible range of subject options to a large group of students rather than a series of restricted groups of subjects to small groups of students in a particular area of Williamstown - Altona. Collection of data was undertaken by the application of questionnaires to the students, parents and staff at given high schools, the students and parents being drawn from Grades 10 - 12. The major findings were: (1) That a Senior High School needed to be accessible to the community in that continuing education should be readily available. (2) Technical and vocational subjects should be offered as well as the traditional academic curriculum. (3) Social science subjects were seen to be important to the overall development of students. (4) External examinations were considered less acceptable than internal continuing assessment. (5) There was a general belief that a Senior High School with its Junior High School complement would encourage greater student maturity. (6) Greater flexibility of organization would result from the separation of junior and senior school levels. (7) The greater number of students at the Senior High School would permit a wide range of subject spheres."

 
 

"Widdup, D. (1980). Social change and the education of males and females. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

PhD

"The thesis analyses the educational achievement and subsequent career choice of males and females in Australia. It draws on Australian research both published and original. The conclusions reached are that sex role stereotypes have arisen largely from cultural processes developing historically from earliest civilization and modified by interactions with later forms of social organization. These stereotypes are internalized by each individual starting from earliest learning experiences and continuing throughout life. The learning of sex role stereotype tends to preserve traditional social stratification by inhibiting the development in women of those skills that would enable them to progress through education and careers to greater access to positions of authority. Not all women are so affected nor is that effect confined to women. Differences in teacher expectation, differences in school organization, and differences between States in terms of Matriculation requirements reduce or increase differences between the sexes in achievement. Some positive steps are being taken by education authorities to reduce sex differences in educational opportunity."

 

WA

 
 

"Baimbridge, P. (1980). The flexible approach to education: its implementation in a secondary school in Western Australia. Crawley WA, University of Western Australia."

MEd

"Since the initial emergence of the flexible area secondary school concept in Western Australia, six such schools have been established. Furthermore, current policy is that all future state secondary schools will be of this design. Parameters within which the development of these schools will be expected to occur are established in 'The Design Brief for Flexible Area Secondary Schools'. Clearly, these parameters embrace elements of both architectural and pedagogic 'openness' and represent a desire, by the Education Department of Western Australia, to establish secondary schools which will perform their educative functions in a manner not hitherto evident in state secondary schools. In examining the development of the flexible area approach to secondary education, this study focusses on Wanneroo High School as one of the first of this type of secondary school to be established. Specifically, this study addresses two questions: (i) What are the goals of Wanneroo High School, as expressed in the Design Brief and in school policy statements? (ii) To what extent are these goals being attained? A major implication to emerge is the need for the education authorities, through preservice teacher education, inservice training, and effective induction programmes, to equip teachers more adequately for their role in the flexible area secondary schools."

1985

ACT

 
 

"Brocklebank, R. J. (1985). The ACT Year 12 Certificate: a student based review. Canberra ACT, Canberra ACT College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"The aim of this field study is to establish the extent to which Year 12 students understand and appreciate the ACT system of senior secondary colleges and the information which appears on the ACT Year 12 Certificate. A description of what makes up the college system is provided. This includes an explanation of how the colleges relate to the high schools, their curriculum, the accreditation of courses, assessment and certification. The role of the ACT Schools Accrediting Agency is explained in the way it underpins the credibility of the system and of how it carries the responsibility for the final generation of the ACT Year 12 Certificate. The major part of the study was a survey of a sample of Year 12 students at the end of 1983 to establish the extent to which they understood the aspects of the system they had been a part of for two years. The data and findings of their survey are presented. The report concludes with an outline of the most recent changes, developments and reactions which in some way affect the system."

 
 

"Cat, B. V. (1985). Background studies for Vietnamese students of English. Canberra ACT, Canberra ACT College of Advanced Education."

MA(TESOL)

"Recent years have witnessed many developments in the use of the communicative approach in language teaching. This approach aims at developing students ability to communicate with native speakers of the target language. To achieve this ability students are required to have not only linguistic competence but also communicative competence. That is why the students need not only the linguistic knowledge but also the background knowledge of the culture in which the language is spoken. Background studies, including culture, must be seen as a separate and indispensable component of the curriculum so that students gain some knowledge of English speaking countries, their peoples ways of life, their customs and habits and so on. Various techniques for the teaching of this subject are examined."

 
 

"Enright, C. (1985). The Co-Operative School, ACT, 1978 - 1980: curriculum options compatible with alternative, early childhood education. Canberra ACT, Canberra ACT College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"The aim of this study was to analyse the philosophy of the Cooperative School O'Connor, ACT as set out in the constitution, and to see how it related to curriculum and teaching strategies. Issues of freedom and choice within a compulsory school environment were examined in relation to the stated aims of the school. The developmental needs of children in the early childhood age group, and the personal variables they brought to the learning situation, were related to the school environment. Decision making strategies were examined for their relevance to consensus based processes and a cooperative style of community management. Areas of the curriculum which have traditionally been difficult for alternative schools to implement to the satisfaction of all community members were examined. The study ends with reflections on the place of alternative, progressive schools in the 1980s, and the need for such schools to exist to provide an educational choice for parents and children in the future."

 
 

"Gordon, P. (1985). Years 11 and 12 English curriculum in the ACT 1984. Canberra ACT, Canberra ACT College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"In 1976, following the recommendations of the Campbell Report, school based course development and assessment replaced the New South Wales Higher School Certificate courses and public examinations in the Australian Capital Territory. By 1984 the benefits of the new system were very clear in the area of English curriculum at Years 11 and 12 level. The hopes of the Campbell Report have been fulfilled in terms of providing students with greater freedom of choice and flexibility in the selection of options. Assessment instruments have become much more wide ranging. Teacher student relationships have become less authoritarian. Teaching strategies and learning approaches have generally made students more active participants in the learning process. The field study drew on English course documents in the senior secondary colleges, presenting an overview of the workings of the English curriculum."

 
 

"Lai, K. S. (1985). Streaming in the primary school. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra ACT."

MEd

"This field study is a critical analysis of early streaming in Singapore. Primary school pupils are streamed at the end of Primary 3 on the basis of their performance in achievement tests in English, Mathematics and Second Language. The streaming policy is based on eugenic and economic premises. The policy makers believe that intelligence is largely determined by genes, and that the quality of human resources is a vital factor for nation building. The study identifies the ideological position of the policy makers by discussing some of their major assumptions about humans, society, knowledge, school and curriculum, and reveals the ideological underpinnings of inherited differences in IQ and meritocracy which support this policy. The study also examines the inequality of advantage of this form of streaming. The findings of the pre- primary study and the study on dropouts show that unnatural inequalities do affect the performance of pupils in achievement tests and their desire to stay on in school. The analysis of the planning and management of the change shows that different reactions of principals, teachers and parents can have different effects on pupil motivation and learning, with grave social implications."

 
 

"Skinner, G. (1985). Cognitive style and social needs of academically gifted children. Canberra ACT, Canberra ACT College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"Most departmental policy statements on the education of gifted and talented students recommended their retention, where possible, in mainstreaming classes in neighbourhood schools. The educational experience in such classes, of 14 students identified as academically gifted by their teachers, was investigated using a case study approach. Their cognitive style was studied by reference to information processing strategies as revealed in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC - R) subtest scores. Interpersonal and communication skills were investigated through classroom observation and structured interviews. The theories of deviance and authority were applied in interpreting this data. Results indicated relationships between students cognitive style and teachers identification methods, and between students cognitive style and their school satisfaction. Sex differences in teacher response and student interaction were also noted."

 
 

"Welch, I. (1985). Reconstituting a tradition, core curriculum for Australian schools: a retrospect. Canberra ACT, Canberra ACT College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"The publication of the Curriculum Development Centres discussion paper core curriculum for Australian schools in June 1980 stimulated discussion of the concept of core curriculum in Australia. The driving force came from the foundation director of the CDC, Malcolm Skilbeck. This study discusses the themes and directions to which Skilbeck was committed through a study of his work prior to his return to Australia in 1975 and his subsequent writings. The study considers Skilbecks work against general thinking on educational matters in Australia and overseas. The study looks at Skilbecks approach to cultural mapping and school based curriculum development as the two fundamental planks of his approach to the development and implementation of a core curriculum for Australian schools. The study concludes that the CDC discussion paper was a valuable stimulus to discussion of curricular foundations at the time it was released but represented a point of view that was not fully understood or appreciated at the time. It laid the foundation for the renaissance of the general concept as democratic curriculum in 1984 and provides important indications of the potential for the development of the Participation and Equity Program."

 

NSW

 
 

"Barker, P. I. (1985). Dance and aesthetic education. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"The thesis aims to raise practical and philosophical problems which bear upon dance and the arts in education. Resolutions for these problems are sought so that the clear nature and role of dance can be established. A case is made for the importance of including dance in the curriculum. Suggestions are given concerning an appropriate way to approach the development and programming of dance in education. Problems connected with dance include confusion of terminology, adverse societal attitudes, confused methodology springing from the traditional placing of dance in the physical education arena and misinterpretation of related concepts such as creativity and expression. More serious and deep rooted problems centre around the notions that dance is a subjective activity and therefore cannot be criticised or evaluated and that dance has no knowledge content and thus is unimportant in education. A five strand approach to the development of dance is suggested. The student is required to study the aspects of artist, critic, historian and aesthetician. An added dimension is that of society involvement which seems a two way interchange between the dancer and the community."

 
 

"Bradley, D. (1985). Science teachers perceptions of the secondary science curriculum in the context of the implementation of the science syllabus in some junior secondary schools in southern Tasmania. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt

"The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a sample of junior secondary schools in southern Tasmania, the area of the implementation of the Science Syllabus (Schools Board of Tasmania, 1978). Data were collected on the characteristics of schools, science teachers, their perceptions of their science curriculum decision making processes, the strength of influences on those processes and the implementation of the Science Syllabus. The measuring instrument was developed by the researcher. This involved interviews with science teachers and two pilot studies outside the study sample. The main study sample was all the science teachers in junior secondary schools in Region 3 of the Schools Board of Tasmania. The measuring instrument was a self administered questionnaire. Ninety six questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 83 per cent."

 
 

"Brandon, B. A. (1985). Factors affecting implementation of religious education guidelines in a sample of Catholic secondary schools in the Archdiocese of Melbourne. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt

"This thesis investigates the factors affecting the implementation of the Religious Education Guidelines in a sample of Catholic secondary schools in the Archdiocese of Melbourne. Data were collected by means of surveys of both principals and religious education teachers and by interview with principals in the sample schools. It is clear from the data analysis that the leadership of both principals and religious education coordinators is crucial in the guidelines implementation process, the leadership being in both the level of direct involvement with the teaching of religious education and in the curriculum development aspect. This points to inservice needs for principals and religious education coordinators as well as for religious education teachers generally. There is strong support for the suggestion that the inservice requirements of religious education teachers are best met by school based, as distinct from centrally based, programs. The need for what is being attempted through the guidelines is acknowledged, but there are some problems with the clarity of presentation of the guidelines as well as with the quality of the material resources available to support their implementation. The general level of morale of the school, the faith position of the religious education teacher and the formality of approach to religious education are all seen as affecting the degree of implementation of the guidelines, as is competition, at a Higher School Certificate level, from subjects with external examination components."

 
 

"Carr, K. L. (1985). Integrating handicapped children into the mainstream of school and society. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"The question of segregated and integrated settings for education and the relationship of special and regular education are analysed as two of the consequences of legislation in the USA which mandates public education in the least restrictive environment for all handicapped children. The USA is focused upon because its attempt to legislate educational and social change for handicapped children is supported by federal funds which have enabled American educators and parents to develop many well documented and some longstanding programs of integration. Parents and professionals have a crucial but unequal relationship to each other as they seek to do what each believes is best for the handicapped child. Classroom teachers are the cornerstone of successful integration programs which require a new relationship between special and regular educators. The implications of integration for both able bodied and handicapped children are examined, with particular attention to the new call for social skills training of handicapped children who are now being stereotyped as deficient in these skills."

 
 

"Facer, E. J. (1985). Immigrant education. Social adaptation of immigrant children: Indochinese in Australian primary schools. Wollongong NSW, University of Wollongong."

MA(Hons)

"Social adaptation in Australia of Vietnamese, Laotian and Kampuchean immigrants was investigated. Of specific concern was evaluation of how immigrant children were being equipped, in schools, to meet cultural and social expectations of Australian community life. The empirical investigation involved 65 Indochinese children in primary schools in Wollongong NSW. English language ability, cognitive development, academic and social progress were analysed to assess performance in terms of demands of Australian school environments. Results highlighted implications for childrens long term adaptation of low proficiency in English communication, notwithstanding strong abilities in other areas. The influence on social adaptation of traditional cultural patterns and values, family structure and attitudes, learning styles, and communication, were established as areas for attention by educational planners."

 
 

"Finger, G. D. (1985). An analysis of the implementation of the primary science syllabus in Bundaberg and district state primary schools. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"The purpose of this study was to examine and analyse the implementation of the primary science syllabus in Bundaberg and district state primary schools. A two part questionnaire was administered to 180 teachers from 2 Bundaberg and district state primary schools. Questionnaires were completed by and retrieved from 147 teachers from 24 of the schools. The findings of this study are reported and analysed in terms of the characteristics of the schools and teachers studied, the science planning procedures used by teachers, the planning problems encountered by them, and finally, the classroom practices employed in science teaching."

 
 

"Gee, D. R. (1985). Expectations of secondary education in a NSW country city. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"The objectives of this study were to investigate the differing perceptions that the students, parents, teachers and employers in a NSW country city have of the secondary school curriculum, in order to provide a database which the participating schools may wish to use as a basis for curriculum change or further investigation. Survey research using a modified form of an instrument developed by Collins and Hughes (1978) formed the basis of the investigation. The three comprehensive high schools and a sample of employers from a large city in the New England region of NSW were involved in the study. It was found that students, parents, teachers and employers think in terms of four overall curriculum orientations which were described as academic, discipline, preparation for life and personal autonomy / social awareness. Most groups considered the schools achieved academic goals very well. However, other areas of the curriculum such as preparation for life and personal autonomy / social awareness were considered more important. There was also a division among the academic items by students and parents who saw two differing academic orientations. One of these contained traditional school academic subjects, mathematics and sciences. The other referred to cultural subjects. This second group was considered much less important by the students and parents."

 
 

"Hamer, P. J. C. (1985). Destreaming the primary school: a study of change and innovation. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MA(Pass)

"This study developed out of a concern for the widespread use of educational ability grouping in Australian schools. The opportunity to study a change proposal at first hand came with a Catholic four streamed primary school seeking to investigate its current practices with a view to possible future changes being made. An Attitude to Streaming Questionnaire completed by staff members, feeder school principals, Catholic education office consultants, Catholic education office regional directors and advisors and Catholic teachers college lecturers revealed that the staff attitudes differed greatly from all the other groups surveyed. The staff participated in a number of inservice activities designed to foster awareness of the streaming debate and to promote further investigations about the specific nature of the students currently enrolled at the school and how they were affected by educational ability grouping. This study clearly shows the importance of involving all staff members in any change proposal that seriously affects their classroom teaching, for no real change can take place within a school unless the behaviour of individual staff members is changed."

 
 

"Karaolis, J. (1985). The structure of narrative history: implications for teaching. Kensington NSW, University of New South Wales."

MEd(Hons)

"Philosophical analysis of the historical task is complex. One aspect which requires investigation is the structuring of historical data into a coherent whole. This essay is an enquiry into one category of historical synthesis, that in which a complex transformation is diachronically related, which in this essay is termed narrative history. It is argued that narrative history is a cognitive tool by which the complex relatedness and interaction of disparate past individuals and changes can be made apparent. An analysis of historical narrative is undertaken which attempts to show that each narrative whole is composed of separate narrative strings, each with a philosophic individual as its continuing subject, and combined in a range of ways which express particular relations between each series. The strategies of discourse adopted by the historian are examined to determine the ways in which they express the historians conception of the object of his narrative. Different kinds of historical narrative are identified and the claims of narrative to be explanatory, and objective, are examined."

 
 

"McKinnon, D. H. (1985). Teachers and computer literacy: management of change. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"This essay is concerned with the management of curriculum change as it relates to teachers acquiring the necessary skills to use computers in the classroom. The essay begins with a review of the literature in which the concept of teacher computer literacy, and the teaching skills involved are examined. The professional development of various teacher groups is examined. The Concerns Based Adoption Model as a framework for the provision of diagnostic information relating to teachers concerns with respect to the acquisition of skills is discussed. The objectives of an inservice course available from the New South Wales Department of Education are examined. Argument is made for further research into the Concerns Based Adoption Model as a method for supplying relevant diagnostic information on teachers concerns about computers in order that effective inservice courses can be structured to meet the needs of teachers and therefore hasten the adoption of this particular innovation, computers in education."

 
 

"Melino, R. (1985). The rationale, development and evaluation of a programme of modified bilingual education in two schools using Italian as the second language. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"This essay studies the rationale for, and develops a modified bilingual program in two Sydney schools; Bondi Beach Public School and St Francis Primary School, Paddington. The programs are evaluated in the light of their feasibility and the conclusions are that primary children enjoy learning a language which they see as being relevant to their environment. The development of a suitable curriculum was initiated but by no means completed. Since all schools do not feel the impact of cultural diversity a curriculum should incorporate teaching about our society's diverse identity. In schools where a dominance of ethnic communities is low this study could be carried out in English. In other schools that have opted to learn one other language this could be done in the second language. The programs carried out showed that a second language can be learnt in the primary school so that the school is in fact a mini bilingual society."

 
 

"Nay Brock, P. K. (1985). A history of the development of English syllabuses in NSW secondary education, 1953 - 1976: a continuum or a series of new beginnings? Armidale NSW, University of New England."

PhD

"This study focuses upon the development of English syllabuses in New South Wales secondary education from 1953 to 1976. By means of a thorough comparative analysis of the texts of the five syllabuses of 1953, 1961 - 2, 1965, 1971 and 1974 - 6, the shifts in content of these syllabuses are identified. Through an examination of primary source documents, the interviewing of all the surviving principal figures involved in the process of syllabus formulation during that period, and reference to other relevant research, a history is constructed which accounts for the changes located through the process of comparative textual analysis."

 
 

"O'Toole, J. M. (1985). The Domremy supplementary science exercises: a case study of school based innovation and evaluation. Kensington NSW, University of New South Wales."

MEd

"This thesis is concerned with the evaluation of a school based innovation which produced resource materials to assist concerned science teachers to deal with the difficulties that the scientific style of English can cause for learners at the junior secondary level. In the course of the thesis, language features which are characteristic of the scientific style are described and research findings which deal with the problems that these features can cause are canvassed. A number of responses to these problems are raised, evaluated and one is suggested as being potentially fruitful. Some materials which were produced on the basis of this response are described. The materials were found to be flexible and attractive to both staff and students. They were also found to have a significant positive effect on students linguistic competence within the scientific style and upon their acquisition of science concepts."

 
 

"Pattie, I. E. (1985). The Karmel Report and selected primary schools in the Launceston region. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEdAdmin

"The Karmel Report, published in 1973, contained recommendations for the introduction of new educational programs in all Australian primary and secondary schools. Many of the new programs aimed at overcoming the educational disadvantages of some children and schools. This study examines the effects of the report on five Launceston (Tasmania) primary schools which were part of the state education system. Information about the administrative impact of the report on schools and the system was obtained mostly from structured interviews with officers of the Education Department including the five principals. It was found that, in administering the new projects, principals had incurred an increase in workload, a change in work pattern and a shift in leadership style. It was found also that the workload associated with the projects was an unequal load and fell heaviest on the principals of disadvantaged schools."

 
 

"Taylor, P. G. (1985). Curriculum development and decision making: a phenomenological study of the process at one school. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt

"A case study utilising ethnomethodology was undertaken over a two year period. Participant observation was the primary data collection technique. Other data were obtained through the use of surveys, interviews, and unobtrusive techniques, such as use of minutes of meetings, interpretation of some school surveys and school newsletters. The research followed the process of curriculum decision making within the school. Initially, attention was focused on modes of how to develop curricula. From models, attention moved to the processes of curriculum development, in particular, decision making. A relationship is posited between the type of problem and the meaning of participation. Specifically, most decisions involve issues for which there are existing mechanisms for their resolution. The analysis offers some explanation for the incremental nature of school based curriculum development. This analysis derives essentially from the findings on problem solving."

 
 

"Wheeler, M. (1985). Interest electives in a Sydney high school: a case study of a school based curriculum innovation. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd

"This essay is a study of a school based innovation in operation in a Sydney high school. The innovation is a scheme which allows students to take interest elective subjects of leisure, vocational and sporting interest as part of their choice of subjects. One of the main features of the scheme is that the interest electives are integrated into the general school timetable. The introduction and progress of the scheme is observed over the period of two years, 1980 and 1981. The approach adopted in this essay is a process style analysis. Existing theory as to what aids or hinders the introduction and development of innovations is considered, the process involved in the scheme is then described and commented on in the light of the above mentioned theory. Considerable attention has also been given to examining the milieu in which the developments take place, and the effects of this milieu on the scheme and its outcome. Student reactions to the scheme, both encouraging and critical, are examined, and the influence of student opinion on staff perceptions of the worth of the scheme are discussed."

 

QLD

 
 

"Bechly, L. F. J. (1985). Towards a theory of art education for Queensland primary schools. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEd

"This thesis maintains that creativity and a disciplinary orientation should not be viewed as a priori to the problems besetting art education in Queensland. Rather, it is argued that an adequate theory of art education for primary schools in which creativity is embedded as a valued human attribute should be explored. Drawing on the thought of Ernst Cassirer, in which man is defined as creator and user of symbols, a theory of art education in which creativity is not debased is postulated. The need, in primary school art education, to stress the childs continuous confrontation with the environment remains a central issue of this theory."

 
 

"Christie, M. J. (1985). The classroom world of the Aboriginal child. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

PhD

"In this thesis, the classroom experience of Aboriginal children is examined closely, in an effort to identify exactly how the school is failing to cater adequately for the needs of this special group. Three strands of data informed the research. The first strand comprised phenomenological data gathered through interviewing and projective testing. The data revealed that Aboriginal children hold distinctive views on knowledge, school and academic work, the school generally being perceived as a ritual institution wherein knowledge is somehow sacramentally endowed upon those pupils who behave appropriately. The second line of research was quantitative in nature, directed at examining the Aboriginal childrens effort when required to perform purposeful learning behaviours. A theory of purposeful learning behaviour, that which the special nature of classroom education demands, is developed. The third form of data derived from participant observation of actual classroom behaviour. It focused on the ways in which the Aboriginal children respond when teachers demand academic behaviour which they are incapable of, or unused to performing, and on the teachers responses to the childrens constant failure to respond as desired."

 

SA

 
 

"Dadds, B. J. (1985). Politics, incrementalism and professionalization of reform in Advisory Curriculum Boards in South Australia, 1972 - 1976. Bedford Park SA, Flinders University of South Australia."

MEdAdmin

"In 1972 a Primary Schools Advisory Curriculum Board and Secondary Schools Advisory Curriculum Board were established to replace existing less representative groups which advised the Director - General of Education about curriculum in government schools but only four years later both Boards had ceased to function and were in abeyance for three years. The Advisory Curriculum Boards did not operate successfully because they relied too much upon rational research and development approaches and lack awareness of the importance of political processes in the development of school curriculum policies. In addition to those factors which hindered their operations, the Boards were prone to domination by professional educators who believed that they were uniquely able to provide solutions to curriculum problems. When technical experts assumed responsibility for change, professionalisation of reform generated antipathetic attitudes towards community involvement in curriculum policy making within Board members. The prevailing opinions about good management practices in 1972 contributed to the degeneration of positive and active community membership of the Primary School Advisory Curriculum Board and the Secondary Schools Advisory Curriculum Board. The business of the Boards became merely the endorsement of policies and decisions presented by its professional educator members."

 

TAS

 
 

"Baker, J. R. (1985). A chance for equality? Hobart TAS, University of Tasmania."

MEd

"This study looks at the development of comprehensive education in Tasmania. It suggests that the Tasmanian experience of comprehensive education has been marred by a systemic misinterpretation of the principle. It considers the powerful social factors which militate against the realisation of the comprehensive education principle and questions whether the influence of these factors will ever weaken enough to allow it to succeed. Warrane High School, an urban four year comprehensive high school located east of the Derwent River in southern Tasmania, is the focus of this study. In making judgments about the various intellectual and social aspects of the schools population and in assessing its feeder community, it looks at other studies and considers their findings in the light of the expectations held for comprehensive education. In its final stages, the study examines the federal government¿s compensatory education programs and then suggests directions that planning for education should take to ensure that the system of education which prevails caters fairly for all children in Tasmania."

 
 

"Broughton, L. (1985). What might count as art in schools? Hobart TAS, University of Tasmania."

MEd

"Art as a school subject embraces a broad epistemological domain. It is quite accepted for an art teacher to include in a single art curriculum such diverse fields as art history and ceramics, drawing and metal casting, paper making and basic design, furniture design and the making of videos, conceptual art and weaving, book binding and body art, computer graphics and wood carving, clay modelling and photography, painting and performance. The intent of this dissertation is to inquire into the apparent morass of diverse knowledge in art, into the educational potential of the various philosophies, ideologies, processes and techniques all of which can, it seems, legitimately constitute the content of school art curriculum. Behind this inquiry is a desire to resolve the problem as to what should count as Art in schools."

 
 

"Harington, D. G. (1985). The introduction of transition education into the Campania District High School. Hobart TAS, University of Tasmania."

MEd

"The plight of the rural school leaver suggested the need for a better preparation of students leaving the Campania District High School. In 1980 a case to support the introduction of a transition education program was prepared. The various alternatives which were available to overcome the problems of transition from high school to beyond were investigated and these included careers education, transition education, work experience, link courses and vocational education. The small size of the Campania District High School proved ideal for the smooth implementation and ready monitoring of this innovation. The evaluation process used was informal and based upon feedback from all the individuals concerned and the ultimate destination of the students. The experience gained from the program has given rise to certain policy recommendations: the main areas being that a formal program of transition education should be introduced into district high schools. Such a program should be taught as a separate subject and administered by a senior member of staff. Transition education should commence as early as Year 7 and include work experience for both Year 9 and Year 10 country students."

 
 

"Strube, P. (1985). The physical science textbook since 1800: a study of its language, structure and rhetorical style. Hobart TAS, University of Tasmania."

PhD

"This thesis examines physical science textbooks and evaluates the language of science textbooks as it relates to the history and purpose of science education. It is based on the premise that such language can be characterised not only by structural factors (such as sentence length and vocabulary) but also by what the language attempts to achieve. The thesis explores the history of physical science texts since 1800, and uses that history to develop both a classification system for textbooks, and a framework against which to view the changing purposes of science textbook authors. It is based on an analysis that provides information about the development of the modern science text, uses past and present texts as mirrors of the long standing debate about the place of the textbook in science education, and provides the classification and characterisation of textbooks needed for any further rhetorical consideration of the textbook as prose."

 
   
 

"Towns, K. W. (1985). School improvement: curriculum renewal through professional development. Hobart TAS, University of Tasmania."

MEd

"The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the key elements of effective schools and to develop a framework or model though which a school may enter into curriculum developments, realising that such an approach will lead right into professional development. It is an avenue which finds teachers engaging in sharing their ideas and it seems to be a natural and most effective course for progress into professional development."

 

VIC

 
 

"Anset, R. M. (1985). Curriculum days in primary schools and professional development: the present scene. Geelong VIC, Deakin University."

MEd

"This dissertation investigates the impact curriculum days are having in primary school since their introduction in Victoria in 1983. It is argued that curriculum days, if seen as part of an ongoing process, are having a positive impact at the school level in the development of teachers and curriculum. The research focuses on one primary school to find out what is actually occurring on curriculum days. Contextual factors impinging on the school are noted and analysed as to their influence on curriculum day topics. The paper emphasises that the processes involved in planning curriculum days are of vital importance to the effectiveness of curriculum days and their follow up phase. Four case studies of different curriculum days are analysed and reflected on. Two of these were regarded as being successful by the staff at the case study school while the other two were seen as being unsuccessful."

 
 

"Blachford, K. R. (1985). Curriculum evaluation policy with special reference to geographical education. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

PhD

"The present study proposed to analyse critically the concept of curriculum evaluation policy with a view to identifying the nature and elements of such a policy in order to make recommendations for the improvement of evaluation policy, particularly in geographical education in schools. Consequently, the study involved an exploration of the meaning of curriculum, evaluation and policy, and a study of the recommended curriculum and evaluation approaches in the recent literature and particularly in geographical education. In geographical education, the subject is only beginning to accept the humanistic approach to curriculum and the literature in evaluation is overwhelmingly dominated by student testing. The relevance of geographical education, the existence of classes in geography, and the content of published kits, texts and courses, is assumed valid for all contexts; there is little attention given to assisting teachers in context evaluations, evaluation for course planning and improved practice or implementation, and little attention to assisting in the detection of unintended and long term outcomes. There is little evidence of a participatory orientation beyond the development of courses with other geography teachers."

 
 

"Bulleid, N. (1985). A proposal for an expanded syllabus in physical education at the higher school certificate level. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

"This project contains an expanded syllabus for the core units of the subject of Physical Education that are taught at the Higher School Certificate level within the state of Victoria. It is an attempt to produce a course guideline that follows a logical, sequential order covering the core units of the subject. It is not a comprehensive text book but merely an expanded syllabus that may be used by both teachers and students involved in the study of physical education at the Higher School Certificate level. This study is an effort to enhance the uniformity of the teaching and the studying of the subject at the Higher School Certificate level within Victoria."

 
 

"Busch, A. G. (1985). History was never like this: oral history in the classroom. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

This project is a study of the oral history method as it can be utilised in the classroom. The place of history in the school curriculum is considered and oral history is defined and discussed. The study looks at the specific benefits that are supposed to accompany student involvement in the oral history method.

 
 

"Calder, R. (1985). School integration through cooperative learning: implications for special education. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"The integration of disabled students into mainstream schools is now part of Victorian Government policy. The implementation of this policy is causing concern among many teachers, parents and others in the community. This paper describes some of the problems facing students in special schools and discusses the advantages of allowing so called disabled students to work in mainstream schools. The benefits of a cooperative working group are emphasised with regard to the introduction of disabled students into mainstream schools. A pilot program which allowed both disabled and mainstream students to work together through the medium of drama is described. Recorded discussions with students from both the mainstream school and special school as well as teachers who worked in the program suggest that joint programs can be beneficial in promoting successful integration. From the projects described conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made which suggest a direction for further study."

 
 

"Clutterbuck, J. M. G. (1985). Microcomputer applications in individualizing foreign language teaching. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"This thesis seeks to reexamine the theoretical principles of individualised instruction against the background of computer assisted instruction. It demonstrates that these principles can be adhered to in designing programs employing microcomputers in teaching foreign languages. The study reviews the theoretical considerations in computer assisted instruction and indicates some of the advantages and limitations of using computers in foreign language teaching. Five documented studies are outlined to demonstrate how theory is put into practice, and the study discusses such factors as the reduction of drudgery in the classroom, the humanisation of classroom teaching, error analysis, compilation of item banks and student reaction to computer assisted instruction. The study concludes with a reminder that the computer is still only a tool and should never be seen as anything more than an ancillary to a competent human teacher."

 
 

"Crisp, K. (1985). An implementation and evaluation of Graves approach to process writing in a postprimary school. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

This study sought to implement and evaluate in a postprimary school a process approach to writing which had been developed in a primary school by Donald Graves and his associates. Action research strategies were used in both implementing and evaluating the study. The resultant findings suggest that it is possible to use Graves approach in the postprimary setting but allowances must be made for the differences in school organisation and the previous school experiences of adolescent students. General observations about the implementation of the innovations in the postprimary school are also suggested.

 
 

"Edwards, J. (1985). Are you satisfied?: review of parental attitudes towards the curriculum of an independent girls' secondary school. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"This thesis examines the attitudes of parents to a range of issues concerning the content and application of the educational program of a small independent girls school in Melbourne's eastern suburbs. The material that forms the basis of the thesis was gathered from information supplied in response to questionnaires sent to all parents of daughters in the senior school, supplemented by a limited number of interviews. The intention of this review of the school was to establish the extent to which the schools educational program reflected the wishes and needs of the present parent body, to establish whether there were any areas of substantial dissatisfaction that need immediate attention, and to determine whether there were particular reasons why parents chose this school as such information could assist in the development of a particular style for the school. The thesis analyses the 198 responses to the questionnaire (with some illumination given by the interviews of 28 parents) and suggests areas for change. However, the overall impression gained from the analysis is that the present parent body is extremely satisfied with the school."

 
 

"Forsyth, A. (1985). Using the media in developing economic courses. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

"The chief aim of this investigation was to study the effect the media may have on the development of school economics courses. As school economics is justified largely on the basis of citizenship and our courses are drawn generally directly from the discipline of economics itself, it was decided to explore other means of developing economic curricula which in this case involved the study of one section of the media - the newspaper. One hundred and twenty pages were drawn at random from a years publications of the Age newspaper. The content of these pages was then analysed in term of column space devoted to economics subject matter to check how significant is the amount of economics material reported in the general pages of the newspaper. Furthermore, data were collected to derive a picture of the economics concepts involved. Once these data were collected it was reported that in percentage terms, a significant amount of column space was devoted to economics issues. Furthermore, there was a large range of economic concepts and terms presented in the sample; these concepts and terms were grouped together to form the basis of an outline for a school course."

 
 

"Garrood, J. and G. W. Matthews (1985). A review of the Tertiary Orientation Programme psychology courses in the southeastern metropolitan region of Victoria. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

"The present study was primarily concerned with student retention and the motivations of students. The effect of the differential treatment of subject matter and different assessment methods utilised by the providers upon the retention of students in the various Tertiary Orientation Program (TOP) psychology courses was investigated. This differentiation was defined as formality, or the degree to which a particular course approximated a general undergraduate psychology course. On the basis of the literature reviewed, it was anticipated that the formality of the course, would be the major predictor of student continuance. In order to test this, and other predictions about student retention, as well as student perceptions and expectations, questionnaires were administered to both the teachers and students attending six Technical and Further Education (TAFE) providers in the south eastern metropolitan region of Victoria. Analyses of results supported the major prediction that course formality was associated with student retention. The more formally structured a particular college course, the higher the student retention rate in that course."

 
 

"Gilding, A. M. G. (1985). The design and evaluation of computer based microworlds in chemistry education. Melbourne VIC, Melbourne College of Advanced Education."

MEd

"The present research was an investigation into the design and evaluation of computer based microworlds in chemistry education. Two computer microworlds were evaluated using a multimethod approach focusing primarily upon clinical observation and interview. One of the microworlds, Atom Alchemy, had been developed prior to the study. The second microworld, Molecular Alchemy, was developed within the study. A video monitoring technique was developed to record the students using the microworlds. It was found that both computer based microworlds used in the study were useful tools in chemistry education. It was also observed that where the learning taking place was predominantly heuristic, the microworlds were very effective. However, there was mixed success where learning took place by the association of information and labels. While there are some limitations, the model upon which these microworlds were based was found to be useful in chemistry education."

 
 

"Green, R. M. (1985). Developing curriculum policy: a process of representation. Geelong VIC, Deakin University."

MEd

"Over a period of five years the ACT Schools Authority was engaged in a process of developing curriculum policy. A large number of people from various positions in the bureaucratic hierarchy participated in that development. During the period some people had a fleeting connection with the policys development while others stayed with it from beginning to end. This thesis attempts to describe particular understandings associated with systemic policy development through the ordinary experiences of the people involved. Some themes are evident: powerlessness, managerial authority, dialogical dysfunction, for example: and some difficult situations revealed: managerial interaction, pressure on subordinates, control mechanisms. The paper traces the development of the policy slightly beyond its secondary stage. The third stage was completed in 1984. Of particular importance to the paper is the relationship of the committee of 15 that comprises the ACT Schools Authority, to the officers of the system. That relationship remains problematical."

 
 

"Harding, R. (1985). A review of enrolments in mathematics and science education in Victoria. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

"The aim of this project is to examine enrolments in mathematics and science subjects in secondary schools and in postsecondary courses in Victoria. In addition consideration is given to the output of tertiary science and mathematics based courses in terms of their disciplines and their employment prospects. Data collected in sample surveys conducted by the Victorian Education Department has been used to examine participation in mathematics and science in the secondary years. Participation rates as indicated by these surveys are linked with retention rates to Year 10 as given by the Commonwealth Bureau of Statistics. In the tertiary field, data on enrolments in mathematics and science based courses was obtained from the statistics of the universities and the colleges of advanced education. There appears to be an increasing demand for tertiary mathematics and science courses especially in the universities. While there is still some unemployment amongst tertiary maths science graduates, the data shows that they have a better chance of gaining employment than do many other graduates."

 
 

"Ikin, R. R. (1985). The influence of an inspectors involvement in curriculum planning and the use of curriculum support services within a group of small Victorian rural primary schools. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"The purpose of this study was to consider the problem faced by teachers in the small rural primary schools of the Traralgon Inspectorate of the Victorian Education Department in planning and implementing curriculum over the period 1978 - 1982. In particular, it was to consider the administrative action of the district inspector for that inspectorate, in response to the problem and the influence his actions had on the organisational cohesion of the group of schools involved, and the behaviours, attitudes, morale and motivation of the teachers and curriculum consultants. The study gave rise to a deeper appreciation of the complexity of the curriculum planning and implementation issue in rural schools. What at first seemed a widespread but nevertheless straight forward problem involving the production and teaching of primary school courses of study, proved to be a hybrid of professional, personal, organisational and psychological issues. Individual values, attitudes and motivations seem to have played a major part as they were constructed and construed in terms of individual perceptions and interpretations of the actions of others. Furthermore it appears that when the varying factors of teaching experience, competence, access to communication and time involved within cooperative schemes are added, there arises much potential for change, conflict, consternation and cooperation."

 
 

"Larkin, C. E. (1985). Commonwealth and Victorian Government involvement in the education of Victorian school - aged children with disabilities as perceived from a review of selected government publications 1970-1985. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

"This study describes some of the major developments in the involvement of both the Commonwealth and Victorian Governments in the education of school aged Victorian children with disabilities from 1970 to 1985. The information has been obtained mostly from published government reports and legislation. Four issues: government responsibility; integration; teacher training; and human rights, which are concerned with certain aspects of the Commonwealth and Victorian Governments arrangements or the education of disabled children, have been selected for discussion. The two most important findings are that there are significant inconsistencies in the Commonwealth and Victorian Governments policies, partly as a result of two different government authorities being involved at each of the two levels of government, and that the theme of human rights is an emergent issue with enormous implications for the future involvement of both the Commonwealth and Victorian Governments in the education of children with disabilities."

 
 

"Lenten, T. (1985). The integration of aesthetic, moral and social values in the curriculum. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"Over the last 20 years there has been a resurgence of interest in the value component of education under labels such as values education, moral education and aesthetic education. It is argued in this study that consideration needs to be given to the question of how the value domains of the aesthetic and the moral (including the social) can legitimately and usefully be developed. To carry out this task adequately it is necessary to analyse key concepts such as value, education, integration and curriculum; and to examine various approaches to establishing the relationship between aesthetic, moral and social values. The position adopted in this study is that it is both possible and desirable for teachers and curriculum developers to deal with the aesthetic, moral and social value areas simultaneously because of the intimate and integrated nature of the relationship between them. It is argued that the respective value domains referred to cannot be treated in an entirely separate way, and that efforts to do so will distort that relationship."

 
 

"Letts, L. J. (1985). Drug education in its administrative context: a study of primary schools in the Western Metropolitan Region of Melbourne. Geelong VIC, Deakin University."

MEdAdmin

"This study was designed to establish the administrative contexts in which curricular decisions are made about drug education in state primary schools in the western metropolitan region of Melbourne. One hundred and four state primary school principals were sent a survey consisting of 12 questions. Eighty four schools returned the survey. The results indicated that 26 schools conduct drug education. Fifty eight schools do not. Of the 26 schools who made decisions to conduct drug education, 14 made routine decisions and 12 made reflective decisions. School councils, principals, parents and community attitudes acted as official and unofficial agents of curricular respectability and were powerful influences in schools deciding not to introduce drug education. The main reason for not introducing drug education is that there is no perceived need. This study reveals that the contexts in which some schools are making decisions about drug education are leading some schools to adopt counterproductive approaches to drug education."

 
 

"Living, L. J. (1985). Video and television in the modern language classroom: a survey of the response to technological challenge. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

"The literature of this survey comprises a large number of experiments using video and television in the language classroom. Generally, educationalists and researchers are optimistic about their effects and potential. Despite the abundance of attitudinal and subjective surveys about the use of these media in education, there still remains an unacceptable lack of experimental evaluation of video and television methodologies and of their effects on language learning. The pervasiveness of technological innovation and its popular acceptance cannot be ignored by educationalists. They must adjust and adapt to the new technologies. Video applications to language learning will become even more sophisticated with its marriage to computers in the form of interactive videodiscs, to become perhaps one of the most complex learning resources developed to this time."

 
 

"Manson, B. A. (1985). Designing a course of study for Year 7 Social science: a report on course construction at a new secondary school in the Shepparton district. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

"The development, in 1982 of a new, private, secondary school, in a rural environment, created a need for the design, initially at Year 7 and 8 level, of a suitable Social science curriculum. Many elements such as objectives, content, methods, and evaluation go to make up a school curriculum, however the argument was put forward that more information than this was required. A situational analysis, where many factors relating to the students, the school and the teacher are looked at in more detail, should also be included. The requirement to have a Social science course available for the beginning of the new school year meant that certain assumptions had to be made in regard to the students needs, interests and abilities. To check the validity of the assumptions it was necessary to question the students and their parents, after which modifications could be made to the course, as required. The present study looks at the stages involved in the design, assessment and final evaluation of a suitable Social science course, for Year 7 students, in a particular school."

 
 

"McGilp, E. J. (1985). Children writing. Geelong VIC, Deakin University."

MEd

"This study concentrates on the narrative, expository and artistic writing of children in Year 3 and Year 6 in a Catholic primary school in Adelaide. It attempts to investigate how well children are taught to write at these two critically important years in the school. Research and theory presented provide the background to the study. The school statement of philosophy and the relevant South Australian Education Department documents, are reviewed for their significance to the study of writing. The outcome of the study shows that children are mainly exposed to narrative writing. It also shows that expository writing is not an easy task for the children, while poetry writing, the type of artistic writing nominated for the study, has much appeal for the weak writers. The study highlights the importance of a child grasping the schematic structure she is to use for writing. it also shows that when a child shows confidence in handling the schematic structure she is often prepared to share writing with others. Hence mastery of schema influences ownership of the written text. The study also challenges future evaluation of writing by teachers."

 
 

"McLean, R. J. (1985). Computer assisted instruction for elementary school mathematics? Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"This investigation represents an attempt at examining the effectiveness and feasibility of instructional computer use in a Victorian primary school. The study involved the development of a computer assisted instruction (CAI) program for the teaching of addition of vulgar fractions. This was tested with 19 Year 5 children at an independent primary school. The children were tested on the topic before and after exposure to the program, and also received a questionnaire on their attitudes and perceptions. The results were analysed by differing mathematical abilities. The program appeared to be only moderately effective. This could have been because of deficiencies in the program and / or the shortage of student exposure. The effectiveness appeared to be greater for students of medium ability."

 
 

"Murphy, E. J. (1985). Research on school and community-based curriculum practice in Aboriginal, multicultural and migrant education. Geelong VIC, Deakin University."

MEd

"The research proposal includes a study of some key problems in relation to curriculum reform in multicultural and migrant education. The contents include an attempt to link issues that emerge from practice to wider educational and social concerns through the identification of explanatory social concepts of multicultural education, curriculum and evaluation theories and policy developments within the historical context of the development of special purpose projects in Victorian, Australian and International education. Issues include those of language, identity, rights, participation, social cohesion, cultural tolerance, acceptance of diversity, pluralism, self determination, equality of opportunity and outcomes in relation to life chances, lifestyles, racism, prejudice, conflict, structural change in schools, employment, funding and devolution of power and the exercise of power. The contents also include an attempt to facilitate self study and action research in some multicultural education projects and examples of the evaluation practices developed."

 
 

"Newton, A. J. (1985). An analysis of how an innovation is disseminated, by using the origins of the vertical curriculum concept in Victorian state secondary schools. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"The purpose of this investigation was to discover the origins of the vertical curriculum structure that has made a considerable impact on state secondary schools in the last decade and to establish how the idea spread throughout the system and why schools made this major change away from the horizontal curriculum. Three research methods were used in this study. Firstly, Education Department secondary school handbooks were studied to identify the vertically structured schools in 1975 and 1982. Secondly, a telephone survey was undertaken in order to find more information about each of the 44 vertical models discovered in the 1983 handbook. Finally, the key carriers of the concept were interviewed to gain in depth information on the innovation. The outcome from the data collected should assist in the understanding of how a major curriculum change can disseminate throughout the schools in an education system."

 
 

"O'Hara, M. (1985). A philosophical analysis of some of the problems associated with integrative curricula. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

"Any curriculum must effect a compromise between two fundamental types of integration: the integrating power of knowers and the integrated structure of knowns. More traditional curriculum arrangements tend to stress the latter, whereas many innovative programs move towards emphasising the former. The pedagogical tension existing between these two emphases, which are neither entirely antagonistic nor completely complementary, is reflected in proposals to integrate the curriculum. Interdisciplinary studies and schemes aimed at unifying an area of understanding take the logical characteristics of differentiated knowledge as their starting point; but entertain quite different assumptions about how it can be integrated. Both these forms of integration are more likely to structure the curriculum by reference to the objective feature of knowledge than by considering the commonsense understandings and interests that particular students or groups of students bring to school with them. By contrast any enquiry based form of curriculum integration inclines toward organising the curriculum exclusively around the perplexities and interests of pupils."

 
 

"Pearson, H. J. (1985). A review of selected social studies curricula for Australian primary schools: 1952 - 1984. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"This thesis analyses social studies curriculum guidelines prepared by state education departments for use in primary schools. Curriculum guidelines from Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia, in the period from 1952 to 1984 are examined. The review of these curriculum guidelines was designed to be a textual analysis focusing on five aspects of the materials which have been published: the way in which social studies has been defined; aims and rationale; teaching strategies; content; and evaluation. Features of recent curriculum guidelines, published after 1980, on which further research and development might be undertaken are also identified. These include: the strategies which could be used to develop children's understandings of concepts and generalisations about society; clarifying whether or not particular values should be promoted in social studies programs; alternative approaches to structuring the content of programs to ensure that content matches intended aims; and alternative strategies to enable teachers to deal more easily with the difficulties involved in the evaluation of children's progress."

 
 

"Pigdon, K. J. (1985). Childrens perceptions of a collaborative, inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning in social studies: a unit on television and advertising. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"A social studies unit on television and advertising was written in association with three Year 6 teachers and was then taught to a class in a Melbourne primary school in collaboration with their teacher. After the unit had concluded, data were gathered from eight selected children in the class through paired interviews and through a cloze procedure and a post cloze discussion. The data were analysed, categorised and organised under aspects concerned with content and aspects concerned with process. Major findings included the fact that the children possessed, in varying degrees, a sound grasp of the understandings around which the unit was planned. There were marked idiosyncrasies in the children's responses to the content of the unit and in the ways they expressed their understanding. The children made clear distinctions between the teaching approach used in this unit and those used in previous social studies units. The children were able to differentiate between the various resources made available to them as sources of information for their inquiry and assess their effectiveness."

 
 

"Piper, K. J. (1985). The Language Development Project Phase II: a case study in cooperative curriculum development and the role of formative evaluation. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

PhD

"The Language Development Project was a major initiative in national curriculum development, the first of its kind in language education in Australia. The study focuses on three major themes or constructs underlying Phase II of the project, its developmental phase, and explores their implications for national curriculum development in the Australian federal context and for English language education in Australian schools. As such it is essentially an exercise in construct evaluation, a formative approach to the evaluation of outcomes. The study analyses the development of three major constructs: the tripartite model of language education; the cooperative model of curriculum development; and the collaborative evaluation model, as they were exemplified in the experience of the project, examines their relationship to the wider context of practice, and explores their implications for the development of a practical framework for the English language curriculum, the resolution of ambiguities in the cooperative model of curriculum development, and the development of a reconstructed model for the formative evaluation of cooperative national programs."

 
 

"Richardson, J. (1985). Introducing LOGO to a Year one curriculum: an investigation. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

"The computer language LOGO, with its emphasis on expediting and facilitating user control and user definition, appears well suited as both a means and a site for investigation of learner autonomy within a classroom curriculum context. Indeed, LOGO in particular, and educational computing in general, appear to offer a unique opportunity for the improvement of education through resolving some of the contradictions between learning psychology and the social constraints of formal instruction. The problems of interfacing notions of instruction with a psychology that stresses the learners active construction of his or her own knowledge are immense. Indeed it is arguable that this is the central issue in education. Certainly it is this issue which this project attempts to address in both theory and practice."

 
 

"Robottom, I. M. (1985). Contestation and continuity in educational reform: a critical study of innovations in environmental education. Geelong VIC, Deakin University."

PhD

"This study explores the notion of contestation in environmental education. Contestation is a process in which self interested individuals and groups in a social organisation cooperate, compete and negotiate in a complex interaction aimed at solving social problems. A framework for critique is developed, comprising technicist, liberal / interpretive and critical paradigms in each of scientific knowledge, educational innovation, educational research and education itself. This framework forms the basis from which a critique is mounted of contesting perspectives in environmental education at international, national and local levels. The thesis addresses the issue of which of several contesting forms of educational research offers the most coherent response to the educational problem of environmental education, and argues that, for the time being, approaches grounded in the critical social sciences are both the best justified and most promising approaches to educational research for environmental education."

 
 

"Smith, G. (1985). Humanities in the primary school: towards a more structured approach. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"This paper is an attempt to review and evaluate current practice in primary humanities topics and to suggest strategies for improving such practice. Currently, childrens interests are often given priority over a view of knowledge or consideration of the role of the school in content selection, continuity in learning between grades and topics is very lax, evaluative and record keeping procedures are scarce, skills of inquiry dominate activities to the extent of distorting the relation between skills and content, and the rationale behind activities is seldom communicated to children. In an attempt to overcome such weaknesses it is suggested that a more structured approach to the choice of content and planning of learning activities be adopted. A planning strategy for topic work in primary humanities is suggested with criteria to employ in the choice of content, relating method to content, and the practical drawing up of a curriculum program."

 
 

"Stitson, R. M. (1985). The narrative analysis of the novel 1984 and its film version: with application to senior secondary school studies in humanities. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

Med

"The object of the thesis is to provide secondary school students with a method of analysing literary and film narratives, through a comparison of Orwell's 1984 with its 1956 film version directed by Michael Anderson. It stresses that before adequate narrative comparisons can be made, a novel's film version must first be considered in its own right as a product of cinema rather than as visual resource material for the study of set novels. The method of approach is to regard a fiction narrative (both literary and film) as composed of three constructs: text, story and discourse. These constructs allow for a common ground to be drawn between literary novel and cinematic film version, from which all discussion proceeds. The author concludes that the film version is a serious drama with elements of 1950s cold war propaganda, and as such cannot possibly be an innocent visual retelling of the novel."

 
 

"Swan, A. E. W. (1985). Rhetoric and reality: responses of school councils to curriculum review. Geelong VIC, Deakin University."

MEd

"This dissertation discusses the politicisation of educational governance in Victoria and the rhetoric of the Ministerial Paper ( 1983) devolving more authority and responsibility to school councils. The research focuses on school council involvement in curriculum review in Geelong's postprimary schools, with particular reference to two schools currently funded under the School Improvement Plan. The proposition advanced is that despite the rhetoric of change, in reality little change has occurred. The evidence produced suggests that the slogans of change have been adopted by schools, but that there has been scant relocation of power in decision making and that school councils have played little part in curriculum review. There is some evidence to indicate that innovators have used the rhetoric of reform to legitimate changes already under way and to consolidate the place of staff controlled curriculum committees in the area of curriculum review."

 
 

"Williamson, J. G. C. (1985). Economic development, schooling process and curriculum form: some strategic implications. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"This thesis commences by reviewing four main theoretical outlooks of the mutual relations of the economy, schooling and curriculum which have been present in national and international debate. Increased consideration is given to the Victorian experience of economic, schooling or curriculum matters. The thesis proceeds to discuss a number of key concerns about the overall theoretical and practical settlement which has emerged in a manufacturing oriented economy like that in Victoria, in what has come to be regarded as a postindustrial era. Mention is made of increases in levels of social division, the inadequacy of government policy, the type of theory which has been in favour and the concept of radical needs. The thesis concludes with the observation that the theoretical and practical aspects of curriculum relations, schooling and the economy can both be reconceptualised, and acted on in important ways."

 
 

"Woods, R. D. B. (1985). Simulation games in the teaching of history: a case study. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEdSt

"The purpose of this case study was to construct, use and evaluate a simulation game as an integral part of the Year 10 history course at an independent boys school in Melbourne. The simulation game used in this study was devised to suit the needs of a particular course in Year 10, was used in all Year 10 history classes, and was assessed as achieving its purpose of arousing interest among the students, providing opportunity for participation, and conveying some sense of the way in which history is formed. As a result of this study it is suggested that simulation games could and should be used more widely in the teaching of history in secondary school courses."

 

WA

 
 

"Chiang, L. C. T. (1985). Conceptual analysis of the hidden curriculum. Bentley WA, Western Australian Institute of Technology."

MEd

"This project has inquired into the contextual meanings of hidden curriculum as used in the literature via the method of linguistic analyses. Its findings indicate that this term has no single referent but conceptions of it abound. It is also noted that while there is no consensus among critics on an essential meaning of the concept of the hidden curriculum, boundaries of possibility are vaguely discernible. This study further suggests that the failure of researchers to unveil the hidden curriculum indicates that the concept is but a creation of the mind of educationists who exploit it to achieve their own political ends, whether the intention is to maintain the status quo or to launch an attack on educational practices. Consequently, it has been proposed that it is impractical if not impossible to dispense with the amorphous hidden curriculum concept, but that research in the relationship between the hidden curriculum and educational rhetoric is both essential and belated in the face of a changing society."

 
 

"Hyde, N. H. (1985). The development of a structural model for the analysis of school based curriculum decision making. Murdoch WA, Murdoch University."

PhD

"This study of school-based curriculum decision making was conducted within a large Western Australian secondary school which had a well documented history of innovation, at the basis of which was a participative decision making approach. The inquiry was designed in a longitudinal case study mode and involved the investigation of nine ongoing and eight posthoc strategic, or policy level, decisions. The whole process was found to be highly political in regard to the underlying actions and events which occurred over time. These actions and events were found to be characterised by lobbying to gain support for or against a particular course of action, with unequal distributions of power and influence among participants."

 
 

"McNamara, S. E. (1985). Matching feedback and cognitive style for improved performance in computer assisted instructional materials. Bentley WA, Western Australian Institute of Technology."

MEd

"This study sought to examine the design of feedback for the correction of errors in computer assisted learning (CAL) courseware materials by investigating the interaction of feedback and cognitive style in a CAL program. Participants were asked to complete a CAL tutorial program comprising 16 problem solving tasks. Each task involved cognitive manipulations of visual information in order to identify the correct response. From the results of the study it was concluded that field dependence predicts performance on problem solving tasks involving the use of visual information. Field dependence predicts the length of first response time, the number of first response errors and the total number of errors made on tasks. Conceptual tempo does not predict performance in terms of response time, error rate or the number of attempts required on problem solving tasks involving the use of visual information. The interaction of feedback (information feedback) and cognitive style improves performance for learners with particular cognitive styles on problem solving tasks involving the use of visual information. Both field dependent and reflective learners performed better with given feedback containing an explanation of errors and strategies for correcting errors, than when given only an indication that an error has been made."

 
 

"Teh, G. P. L. (1985). Designing interactive videodisc for concept learning in geography. Bentley WA, Western Australian Institute of Technology."

MEd

"This study sought to report the results of a developmental project aimed at the production and evaluation of geographical instructional materials suitable for use on an interactive videodisc system. More specifically, this developmental project involved the development of geographic materials on a videodisc, preparation of a computer assisted instruction (CAI) program on the concept of weather forecasting using these materials, reporting on the process of development, and testing the product with a group drawn from the intended audience. The materials were systematically trialled with a group of 14 undergraduate students, all of whom were enrolled in a social science unit with geography as their major option. Subjects were requested to complete a written pretest. Each subject was then requested to work through the weather forecasting program individually; and to complete the posttests. Each of the pre and posttest consisted of a cognitive test on weather forecasting and a semantic differential scale concerning attitudes towards technologically based learning systems. The posttest also contained another semantic differential scale dealing with attitudes about the videodisc system used in the trial. Finally, subjects were asked to evaluate a CAI program developed in connection with the project."

1990

ACT

 
 

"Goodwin, M. (1990). Identifying and overcoming barriers to the implementation of student development programs in ACT high schools. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

This study is of the provision of career education, health education, personal development and student development programs for students from Years 7 to 10 in ACT high schools. The purpose was to discover why these programs are not available to all students and what can be done to make them available. The methods used were an examination of a longitudinal case study of 'Bellbird' High School in parallel with a survey of the current system perspective. Three surveys at 'Bellbird' High School were designed to determine the attitudes of students, parents and teachers to aspects of the curriculum. They provided both quantitative and qualitative data."

 
 

"McInnes, S. (1990). An experiment with radical pedagogy. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

This thesis is an analysis of some research undertaken with students in a unit on human sexuality. It is a critical account of an experiment with 'radical' pedagogy which deliberately forsakes the pessimistic determinism of social reproduction theory in education and assumes the fundamental optimism of resistance theory, wherein human actors are capable of penetrating oppressive ideology and practice and working towards emancipation and social change. The experiment is an attempt to implement radical pedagogy in a particular classroom, and the body of the thesis consists of a critique of data collected from participants' notes and transcriptions of video and audio-tapes of thirteen, two-hour class sessions. The first chapter of the thesis outlines the nature of a pedagogical style which could be described as counter-hegemonic, non- reproductive, or liberatory, and it specifies the elements of a ' radical' approach to classroom process and content, which is distinguished from a 'traditional' one. Subsequent chapters present a critical analysis of actual classroom 'content' and 'process', which is based on a study of reconstructed sessional data, and the final chapter discusses the factors which limited the 'success' of the experiment, and attempts to draw some conclusions about the liberatory possibilities of radical pedagogy."

 
 

"Nielson, P. (1990). A comparative analysis of English as a second language programs and services in government school systems in Australian states and territories and the nexus with Commonwealth funding. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

The study investigates the nature and extent of provision of English as a Second Language (ESL) programs and services for students of non English speaking background (NESB) in government school systems in the six Australian states and two territories and the interrelationship of state/territorial education authority provision and levels of commonwealth funding. The study further examines perceptions of state/territorial service providers of where the onus of responsibility for ESL provision lies. The study is set in the context of the impact of Commonwealth immigration policies on the nature of Australia's multicultural society and on the evolution of provision of appropriate programs and services for NESB students in Australian government schools.

 
 

"Randall, D. D. (1990). An exploratory study of Board-registered school subjects: a survey of selected schools in South East Queensland. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

An exploratory study of Board-Registered School Subjects was undertaken in 1989 to investigate the impact of this category of subjects on the curriculum for Year 11 and 12 students in Queensland secondary schools. The study was undertaken at two levels - the systems and the schools levels. At the systems level, analysis of reports and other documents was supplemented by interviews with key personnel in the education authorities. The segment at the schools level consisted of interviews with administrators or teachers in ten schools in South East Queensland and a small student survey. Board- Registered school subjects, first developed in the State in 1982, broadened the Senior curriculum from its traditionally academic base. The development of this category of subjects also heralded the beginnings of schools based curriculum development in many secondary schools in that State. Four sub- categories of Board- Registered school subjects were identified in the sample schools. These were alternatives to core subjects, such as English and mathematics, vocationally oriented subjects, those relted to life/ leisure skills and subjects which reflected the nature of the geographical area. The response by many schools to the development of these subjects was enthusiastic; most schools in the sample offered six to eight Board-Registered school subjects to students in Years 11 and 12."

 
 

"Vasey, J. M. (1990). Sex differences in parent and student attitudes towards mathematics before and after involvement in a family maths program. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

This study examines sex differences in expressed attitudes of parents and students towards primary school mathematics before and after involvement in a Family Maths Program. The study involved the families of Year 3 and 4 students at a Catholic primary school in the ACT, and used an illuminative evaluation methodology. Results suggest that: the effects of running a Family Maths Program were not confined to the parents and children who attended the formal sessions; at this primary school, mothers have a more active involvement than fathers in the development of attitudes to maths; and there is need for a more integrated approach to the use of calculators and computers in the mathematics curriculum at this school."

 

NSW

 
 

"Arnold, S. (1990). An action research evaluation of a computer enhanced senior secondary mathematics curriculum. Wollongong NSW, University of Wollongong."

MEd(Hons)

At a time when schools face increasing pressures of accountability in both the economic and educational senses, there is a growing need for teachers to assume the role of evaluators of their own work. This study demonstrates that such a role can serve to fulfil both the specific demands of the teacher and school in assessing the worth of a program or innovation, and also the wider demands of the educational community, providing practical research data and results which may contribute to the improvement of teaching practice. The study investigates the use of hand-held calculators capable of graphics, calculus and symbolic manipulation as a means of enhancing the teaching of mathematics at the senior secondary level. The results indicate that such tools can bring about improvements in concept understanding, attitudes towards the subject and confidence in students' abilities in this regard."

 
 

"Barnett, K. J. (1990). A study of the implementation of the Christian perspective in the curriculum at a conservative Evangelical Christian school. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

The challenge for conservative evangelical Christian schools in the 1990's is to maintain their momentum in providing a distinctively Christian learning environment. To ensure that this occurs Christian schools must present curriculum which is consistent with the Christian perspective. This study examines the perceptions of the staff, students and parents at a Christian high school in New South Wales with regard to the Christian perspective and its implementation in the curriculum. A number of specific research questions are formulated to investigate the perceptions of staff, students and parents and the data are collected using a self administered survey. The findings of the study suggest that the staff, students and parents at the school perceive that the school adopts and reflects the Christian perspective but that this perspective is not reflected adequately in the subject matter taught. The reasons for this are examined and it is concluded that the school needs to establish a professional development program with a view to assisting staff to implement the Christian perspective in the curriculum and thereby maintain a distinctively Christian learning environment."

 
 

"Bolton, G. F. (1990). Investigating in primary science - misinterpreted? Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt

Two approaches to teaching and learning in primary science which involve 'inquiry' are 'discovery' and 'investigating'. This thesis compares the teaching approaches associated with these terms, their interrelationships, and teachers' theories about them. On the basis of a literature survey, descriptions for these terms, and relationships between them have been established. A ten criterion analytic framework summarising differences between 'discovery' and ' investigating' was developed. A modification of a schema from the Ford Teaching Project was also developed to indicate the hierarchical relationships between the three descriptors. The analytic framework was used to analyse thirteen teacher's theories about 'investigating' as it relates to the NSW primary science policy statement, Investigating: Science (K- 6) and to identify the extent of 'discovery' components. Verbal and practical indexes, together with a 'discrepancy indicator' were used to quantify the ' investigating' orientation of teachers' verbal and practical theories, and the differences between them. Data sources included interviews, lesson observations using a revised SPOC Schedule, teacher programs and worksheets, post-lesson discussions and researcher notes. Twenty three percent of teachers were found to be 'investigating' in both interview and in their classroom practices, and 86 per cent exhibited classroom practices that were less 'investigating' than was indicated from pre-lesson interview statements. Possible influences modifying the 'discovery' oriented secondary school science framework towards a more 'investigating' orientation were partially explored. Modifying influences found, in ranked order were: association with 'investigating' teaching peers; appropriate preservice experiences; and no modification occurring as a result of inservice courses attended."

 
 

"Coakes, R. W. (1990). The development of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in the North Coast Region, New South Wales Department of Education, with particular reference to community involvement in four north coast schools. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

The Disadvantaged Schools Program has been a watershed in education in Australia. From its beginnings in 1974, to the present day it has provided additional funds for schools serving the nation's most underprivileged neighbourhoods. Of the three basic objectives identified by the Schools Commission the author was particularly interested in the one which sought to encourage schools to become more open institutions linked with their communities. The study focuses on this objective after a general background description of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in New South Wales. By examining the development of the Disadvantaged Schools Program on the North Coast Region in detail the author was able to more easily discover the way community involvement had occurred. Four sample schools were selected for closer examination and via questionnaires to school community members, structured interviews with principals, discussion with staff, observation of these schools and examination of some records, a data matrix was obtained to provide answers to three key questions concerning: the status of community involvement; the responsibility of DSP for this involvement; and the attitude of the community and teaching staff to this involvement. The results showed that the four schools were at various stages on a continuum between involvement and participation. All had achieved the Interim Committee's third objective of more open institutions with closer links to their communities. Excellent programs designed often cooperatively by community and staff were in operation."

 
 

"Croft, K. B. (1990). Languages policy in New South Wales: administrative implications. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEdAdmin

The purpose of the study was to investigate the changes that have taken place in the administration of languages in NSW government secondary schools since the Whyndham Scheme was introduced in 1962. A qualitative approach was adopted and the writer's direct involvement in the teaching of languages was used to provide a conceptual framework for the study. It was found that educators in NSW were often of the opinion that there was no policy for languages. Thus, certain aspects of historical research methods had to be adopted to find the reason for practices pertaining to languages. It was also found that there were many approaches to policy analysis. This thesis generally analysed policy content, as outlined by Hogwood and Gunn (1986). In addition, the term 'policy' itself presented an area of ambiguity. Hodgkinson's (1981) model of administrative process proved increasingly useful to interpret and explain the practices relating to languages. The study also examined the policies for languages in the other states of Australia and overseas. This revealed that similar trends had occurred in languages policies throughout the western world. Policy formulation in the 1980s was directed at providing explicit policies that would encourage more pupils to study languages for longer in the secondary school."

 
 

"Eddy, G. C. (1990). The effectiveness of a simulation game for the teaching of senior school modern history. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

The aim of this study was to examine the learning effectiveness ( cognitive and affective) of the simulation game 'Communism, Fascism and the League investigates' developed by the writer for use in senior school (Years 11 and 12) Modern History. This was done by comparing the learning from the simulation gaming method with that from the traditional teaching method, employed by the same teacher ( the writer). A detailed unit of work, 'League of Nations 1919-1934, Russia 1917-1934 and Italy 1918-1934', was prepared for the traditional teaching method. An attitude test and an achievement test were developed to assess the specific cognitive and affective learning outcomes of these teaching methods. The attitude test was administered as a pretest to all participants. At the conclusion of teaching, the same attitude test was presented as a post-test and Repeated Measures MANOVA used to analyse the attitude data. The achievement test was also completed by all participants at the conclusion of the learning activities and student's t- tests were used to analyse the data from the achievement test and its sub- tests. The results of the research revealed that there was not statistically significant differences for total achievement between the traditional method and the simulation gaming method, but that when the total achievement test was divided into specific sub-tests for different cognitive behavioural levels, the simulation game was superior to the traditional method. The simulation gaming method was also more effective than the traditional teaching method for producing positive attitudes regarding the value of history, empathy with people of the past, and relationships between present day events and those of the past."

 
 

"Engebretson, K. (1990). An analysis of the orientations of key curriculum documents in religious education in use in Melbourne Catholic secondary schools, and their implications for curriculum development. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt

This study examines and describes the orientations of two Religious Education curriculum documents, being used for the development of senior secondary courses in Melbourne Catholic schools. These are the Guidelines for Religious Education for Secondary Students in the Archdiocese of Melbourne (Guidelines) (Catholic Education Office, 1984), and the Religion and Society Study Design (VCE Religion units) (VCAB, 1989), which will be part of the Victorian Certificate of Education from 1991. The study shows that these documents have differing intentions and orientations. A case study of 13 Religious Education coordinators in a range of schools in the Archdiocese of Melbourne was undertaken. The study showed that respondents were aware of the two differing orientations, but that generally they did not perceive this to be an important issue, either because they believed that they could develop Education in Faith courses from the VCE Religion units, or because they believed that opportunities for personal reflection and growth already exist within these units, or because they believed that they could provide for faith development in other courses and activities. The study shows that these three courses of action are directly linked to the approach in Religious Education taken by the individual respondent."

 
 

"Gates, E. A. (1990). The relation of word-reading strategies to various language and literacy skills. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

An extension of a longitudinal study investigated the long- term effects of word-reading strategies on various language and literacy skills in primary school students. Year 3 and Year 4 students, a year previously classified as high on both nonword identification and irregular word recognition tasks differentially exemplifying decoding and wholistic word- reading strategies, continue to perform at a high level in reading words. Students classified as correspondingly low on both word-reading strategies continue to perform at a relatively low level. Students who had previously demonstrated an over-reliance on a decoding approach to word- reading, designated 'Phoenicians' after Baron and Strawson (1976), continue to show evidence of this strategic approach to reading; however, their sight-word abilities have been developed over the ensuring period, evidencing an improvement in their language skills. In contrast are students who had previously demonstrated an over-reliance on a whole-word approach to word-reading, designated ' Chinese'; they appear to have lost their relative advantage for tasks requiring this strategic approach. A follow up comparison of reading strategy groups was made on tasks comparable to those previously used in the original investigation of these students, with particular emphasis on the Chinese/Phoenician distinction. Chinese and Phoenician groups continued to show no difference in phonemic awareness; however, listening and reading comprehension and reading rate, measures which once differentiated the two groups, no longer demonstrated Chinese/Phoenician differences. Language skills not before assessed in this group of students relate to spelling. While spelling accuracy does not show differences between the Chinese and Phoenician groups, the Chinese/Phoenician distinction does become evident in analyses of errors both in a spelling test and in the students' written stories. Phoenicians rely on a phoneme- grapheme conversion, while there is some evidence that the Chinese are likely to rely on a nonphonemic strategy. The present findings argue against the idea that word-reading strategies reflect a generalised language deficit. Rather, there is support for the idea of strategy differences which are specific to word identification."

 
 

"Green, B. (1990). Censorship or selection: what happened in Queensland high school libraries 1977-1987: an examination of the major factors, and the effects of such factors, which influence the nature of fiction resources purchased by teacher-librarians for inclusion in high school library collections, with particular reference to the role of Reviewpoint, the official reviewing journal of the Queensland Department of Education. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

The task of selecting fiction resources for inclusion in high school library collections is onerous under any circumstances. When selecting such resources the teacher librarian has to deal not only with the practical problems of space, finance and user needs, but also with the moral and philosophical considerations associated with such things as accountability, and achieving an always uneasy balance between intellectual freedom, the 'right to read', and the requirement of 'due care and protection' which imbues every aspects of schooling. From about 1970 onwards, however, high school teacher librarians in Queensland had to deal with the added problem of the existence of a highly vocal and extremely active Fundamentalist Christian schoolbook protest movement, the main target of which was the contemporary children's and adolescent fiction content of school libraries. There was, however, a second little known but potentially powerful factor which may also have exerted a different sort of influence over the nature of fiction resources purchased by Queensland teacher librarians at that time and that was Reviewpoint, the official reviewing journal of the Queensland Department of Education. It is this interactive triangle, 'restrictive moral climate', Reviewpoint, and high school teacher librarians and the results of their integration, with which this study is primarily concerned. The study therefore addresses three main questions: how effective was the 'restrictive moral climate' which existed in Queensland from 1977 to 1987, in preventing 'objectionable' adolescent fiction being purchased for high school libraries?; how much influence did Reviewpoint have on the nature of fiction purchased for Queensland high schools during that period?; and, as a consequence, was it censorship or selection of secondary school fiction which occurred in Queensland at this time? In order to gain some objective measure of the actual effect of Queensland's restrictive moral climate an analysis was made of the fiction content of a number of these libraries and the quantity of potentially 'contentious' fiction noted. A survey of Queensland teacher librarians was also analysed in order to ascertain the amount of influence which they perceive Reviewpoint to have on their fiction buying habits. The content of Reviewpoint itself was analysed in order to establish the overall nature of the fiction resources it recommended for purchase for high school library collections between 1979 and 1987."

 
 

"Groome, H. J. (1990). Split down the middle: perceptions of Nunga Aboriginal parents in Adelaide regarding the education of their children in state schools. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

During 1986 and 1987 a series of unstructured interviews were conducted among 35 Nunga Aboriginal parents living in the city of Adelaide to discover their perceptions regarding the education of their children in state schools. Nungas moved to Adelaide from country areas in the mid 1950's following the collapse of rural employment. City life has been characterised by marginality and poverty, in response to which strong kin based networks have developed. Children from these families have generally not had successful experiences in schools and there has been a history of non- communication between schools and Nunga parents. The voluntary participants represented as closely as possible a sample profile of the Nunga population with the exception that the professional group was over-represented. The participants had high aspirations for their children and strongly believed in the importance of education. Many demonstrated this belief through active involvement in local schools. However, there was concern among the majority of parents over the effects of school attendance on their children. Parents desired their children to develop a strong sense of cultural identity. They believed that their children suffered a high level of personal trauma as a result of the schools' failure to recognise their cultural and emotional needs, and through the effects of prejudice experienced from both staff and students."

 
 

"Henry, M. I. (1990). Towards a critical theory of home economics: the case for family studies. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt

Home economics was first introduced to train women and young girls to be house-maids and servants and to be efficient house-keepers. In the latter part of the twentieth century, it needs to have a different focus. It needs to address issues of social significance such as those which influence the well-being of individuals and families: meeting the basic needs of feeding, clothing and housing the family, as well as meeting emotional and social needs of individuals and families. Home Economics needs to reinterpret its purpose in the light of the contemporary needs of society. Adopting a 'Family Studies' approach, it is argued, may well provide a way forward in this respect. Current writers in Home Economics have sought to make meaning of the many interpretations of the subject. A useful conceptual framework is provided by Jurgen Habermas' Theory of Cognitive Interests. This framework has been used here to examine how Home Economics can be interpreted from a 'technical', ' practical' and an 'emancipatory' orientation. It is argued that a Family Studies approach has the potential to transform the perspective of Home Economics from a technical to an emancipatory one. One such program was developed and implemented in Queensland in 1988. As well as the conceptual analytic work described above, this thesis focuses on the implementation of this program. In particular, it examines how the teachers in two schools interpreted the Family Studies program, how these ideas were translated into classroom practice and the factors which influenced the implementation of Family Studies. A case study approach is used."

 
 

"Hewson, L. (1990). Interactive design education. Broadway NSW, University of Technology Sydney."

MA

Interactive computer technology can offer a unique tool for the ongoing development of design theory, and in doing so, it can provide an appropriate tool for the teaching of design. The increasing complexity and the interrelationship of factors influencing design can no longer be satisfactorily modelled using traditional representational techniques. The active nature of design within culture demands a dynamic modelling medium. Once developed, a general interactive model of the design process can form the basis of specific software simulations of design tasks for use within design education. A climate of change in education, both at a federal and state level has created opportunities to offer design education as an essential learning experience to all students. This goal is threatened by a lack of trained design teachers, and the absence of a conceptual framework upon which all design teaching may be based. The utilisation of interactive computer simulation as an alternative delivery mechanism for curriculum, may alleviate the demand for staff, and provide an environment within which theorists, students and teachers may jointly construct relevant design education."

 
 

"Huff, R. G. (1990). A study of the school community's perceptions of one secondary school's curriculum innovations. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt

This study was designed to investigate the perceptions of one school community concerning their secondary school's curriculum innovations. The thesis begins with a consideration of some recent major societal changes which have impacted on the lives of many secondary students. It is argued that while a far larger proportion of students are staying at school longer, secondary schools have continued to cater for a small percentage of their students, the academically oriented ones. The late nineteen seventies and early eighties saw attempts by some schools to develop relevant curricula for their clients. In South Australia a few secondary schools made considerable changes in an effort to cater more effectively for student needs. It was in this climate of widespread concern for secondary education and reports of school based curriculum development that the secondary staff of Cleve Area School embarked on a curriculum review that led to the implementation of several curriculum innovations in February 1986. Two of the major innovations included the introduction of ten week courses and vertically grouping classes. The research phase of this study was conducted during 1988 and sought to discover what the current secondary students, staff and parents' perceptions were of these innovations. The research sub- questions focused on curriculum flexibility, diversity and balance. While innovations such as those implemented at Cleve were perceived to be more effectively meeting the needs of their students, the data also indicate that there are aspects of the innovations which warrant further consideration."

 
 

"Hummel, S. L. (1990). A case study of the effectiveness of the Dalton Plan as a system of instruction. North Ryde NSW, Macquarie University."

MA

The Dalton Plan as a system of instruction has been in operation since 1922 in a Sydney school. A description of the Dalton Plan, in principle and practice, and an analysis of the Dalton Plan into components was undertaken, based on data collected from several sources, namely 16 staff interviews, 30 student interviews (Year 7 n= 15; Year 11 n=15), student observations (n=30), a student questionnaire on planning and hours (Year 7 n=20; Year 11 n=20) and record of study (Year 11 n=15). Effectiveness was considered in terms of academic achievement and in terms of student use of self- regulated learning strategies. Students at the Dalton Plan school were compared to students at a conventional school whose student population was very similar to that of the Dalton Plan school in general ability and socioeconomic status. It was found that students at the Dalton Plan school achieve academically at the same level as students from a conventional school, as measured by the Higher School Certificate best ten aggregate."

 
 

"Ikin, R. R. (1990). The transfer of responsibility for curriculum policy development from the central bureaucracy to school councils in selected Victorian state primary schools. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

PhD

Over the period 1982-84, the newly elected Victorian Government issued a series of Ministerial Papers relating to education. The documents, which were concerned with decision making in the Victorian state school system, as well as with the responsibilities of school councils and curriculum planning, effectively transferred the major responsibility for curriculum policy development from the central bureaucracy to school councils. The purpose of this study was to identify and interpret how selected primary school councils in Victoria assumed their new found responsibility. A description of the political and educational events in curriculum policy development in Victoria over the period 1872 to 1982 is offered first. Identified are those factors which led to the transfer of responsibility. The literature of curriculum, policy making, devolution and decentralisation, participation and collaboration, schools as social systems and as political systems, motivation and change was then explored. From the findings, the study recommends a form of school improvement plan devised to address the responsibilities held by individuals at all levels of the Victorian State education system. It concludes that teachers, parents, principals, bureaucrats or politicians, should all be 'contracted' to plan, resource, implement and evlauate curriculum programs."

 
 

"Loffler, L. (1990). The history of manual training: with specific reference to South Australia. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

History reveals that there has been considerable confusion in society about the place of manual training in the educative process of the young. In part, this is reflected by the names which have been variously used to describe the process - 'manual instruction', ' handicraft', 'hand and eye training' and 'technical education'. Even now, the Australian States describe the process as 'industrial arts', 'manual arts', 'craft', 'technical studies', 'technics' and ' technology studies'. Apart from the different practices which these terms imply, the recent inclusion of photography, plastics and the use of electrical and automotive components have further added to the confusion about the place of manual training during the years of compulsory schooling. By tracing the historical developments in a number of countries, and later with specific references to South Australia, this study demonstrates that there has never been a commonly agreed purpose for the 'constructive handwork' or manual training in the school curriculum. As a result, its long term future remains in some doubt."

 
 

"Malone, P. (1990). Teacher approaches to the planning of religious education: a study of a sample of teachers in Catholic secondary schools in Sydney. North Ryde NSW, Macquarie University."

PhD

During the past 15 years there has been a great deal of debate in Australia about the nature and purpose of religious education in Catholic secondary schools. There has also been a move towards school based curriculum in religious education and the provision of general guidelines by diocesan authorities. This study examines the thinking of a representative group of teachers as they describe the processes by which they plan and teach a specific topic. The language used by the teachers is analysed and compared with the language of their own school documents and the formal statements in the diocesan guidelines and other official documents. It is also compared with the language used in the findings of research into teacher thinking and planning. This research is qualitative in nature and interpretive in design. It uses questionnaires, interviews and written documentation as sources of data. It does attempt to make some generalisations from the results. Seven schools, which had different approaches to curriculum development, were chosen and within these 25 teachers who reflected a range of age, experience, training and other areas of teaching were selected for further interview."

 
 

"Manuel, P. J. (1990). Curriculum policy in South Australia: 1968-1985. Wollongong NSW, University of Wollongong."

PhD

The study objectives include a detailed analysis of the forces and processes shaping system curriculum policies developed in South Australia between 1968 and 1985. The study aims to provide evidence of the matches and mismatches between theoretical policy models and policy and practices operating in South Australia, to provide research data of value for future theory building about curriculum policy development, and for curriculum development which can be used to train future policy makers within educational settings. The study is empirical in design, and uses analytical tools developed for public policy. It investigates the degree to which the central curriculum policy making process in South Australia was comprehensive as opposed to incremental in development, whether the sources of the policy agendas were internal or external, how agendas were linked to social and political pressures, whether the policy statements developed by the educational system were outcomes of professional reformers or outcomes of publicly perceived needs, and other issues pertinent to public policy development. The study shows that curriculum policy development in South Australia allowed for the acceptance of the broad outlines of existing curriculum policy with only marginal changes contemplated in any new development. The processes highlighted the serial nature of the issues, and the piecemeal modification of policies, rather than any single comprehensive approach to the problem. Two stages of policy development were observed. There was a democratic and consultative stage, where people and organisational politics became as important as processes, and the beliefs and values of key actors as critical as external influences. A brief 'political' stage followed, when other stakeholders or influential individuals reacted to the developed policy drafts and included statements to ensure the achievement of political purposes."

 
 

"McCarthy, D. L. P. (1990). Science, religion and the curriculum. Callaghan NSW, University of Newcastle."

PhD

It has long been a widely held view that science and religion represent opposite ends of an objectivity/subjectivity dichotomy, and many curriculum choices have been made accordingly. The central argument of this thesis considers this view in the context of the current educational debate between evolutionists and creationists. It is intended to show that the commonplace exclusion of religious education from the public school curriculum is based on a false distinction between the objectivity of science on the one hand, and the subjectivity of religion (characterised as non-science) on the other. This distinction would, if valid, disqualify religion from being considered as a form of knowledge and justify its exclusion from the curriculum. Showing that this distinction is spurious will remove the objection to the inclusion of religious education in the curriculum. It is argued that science construed as totally objective really amounts to indoctrination, and this would disqualify it from any school curriculum."

 
 

"McRae, K. (1990). Development, implementation and evaluation of a secondary school outdoor education programme: a case study. North Ryde NSW, Macquarie University."

PhD

This study describes and analyses the development and implementation of a secondary school outdoor education program, investigates the effects of the program on the achievement of curriculum intentions, and identifies factors which promoted or constrained the achievement of stated program intentions. Data were collected through participant observation, interviewing and the administration of questionnaires. In addition, data from ratings scales, diaries, reports and documents were collected and analysed. Triangulation of research methods was employed on a continuing basis in an attempt to reach conceptual closure on matters being investigated. The educational and social context in which the program was developed and implemented is outlined. Basic demographic data are analysed to identify the characteristics of the key participants and to determine the extent to which the students were comparable with other populations of the same age. Variables considered likely to have an influence on program outcomes are examined and individual pen portraits are presented. The classroom lessons and the field trips of the program are described in detail to provide an essential context for the subsequent analysis. The outdoor education program was found to improve outdoor skills, but little change was found in selected personal qualities and capacities, the ability to relate to others, or in the levels of environmental concern of the twenty student-participants."

 
 

"Owen, S. (1990). An investigation of the benefits of developing an arts curriculum using an integrated approach. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

Kemmis, Cole and Suggett in their booklet, 'Orientation to curriculum and transition: towards the socially critical school ( 1983), outline a model of education in which three distinct levels of teaching exist. These are vocational/neoclassical; liberal/ progressive; and socially critical. The arts have traditionally been taught using a vocational or skill based orientation rather than the liberal or socially critical model. The 1974 Australia Council and Schools Commission document entitled, 'Education and the arts' emphasised the liberal approach and suggested that the arts should play an important role in the education of students. The document emphasised satisfaction, active participation and the opportunity for self expression and communication provided by the arts. However, the 1987 Australia Council document, 'Review of tertiary arts education and training' showed that most schools and tertiary institutions, by concentrating on an imitative approach based on a classical repertoire, were not catering for the broad interests and creative needs of the majority of the population. Another recent Australia Council document, 'The Artist in Australia today' had recommended that a wider arts education program needs to be available which allows the integrated study of the arts, and multidisciplinary colleges have been suggested. This is consistent with Curriculum Development Centre proposals in the 1970's which encouraged the development of integrated arts courses in various secondary schools throughout Australia. It is suggested that the benefit of this approach is a far more liberal/socially critical orientation in the teaching of the arts, and this is the subject matter of this exploratory study."

 
 

"Patullo, D. J. (1990). Writing in the science curriculum: the effects of expressive writing and formal record-keeping on linguistic and learning outcomes. Armidale NW, University of New England."

MEd

Recent theorising has suggested that expressive writing has greater potential to promote the growth of knowledge and understanding than does formal recordkeeping; and that students will develop a more formal style, in terms of discourse organisation and syntax, as they write repeatedly in a first- draft, close-to-speech style. There were, therefore, two studies in this project. The purpose of the first study was to explore the linguistic and learning development in Year 5 (10-11 years of age) students' expressive (that is, first- draft, close-to- speech) writing about classroom science activities over the duration of a six- week unit of science instruction. The purpose of the second study was to compare the effects of formal recordkeeping on students' science learning with the effects of expressive writing. Results revealed that the students' expressive writing changed significantly, on all indicators, toward a more formal, scientific style. Equally significantly, those students who engaged in expressive writing following the science activities performed better on tests of scientific knowledge and understanding than did students who wrote as directed by the teacher. However, contrary to expectations, there were no significant linguistic differences on the posttest explanations between the students who received instruction in how to write about the science activities and those who did not."

 
 

"Phillips, R. W. (1990). Expectations of teachers and parents of primary education in six NSW country schools. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt

The objectives of this study were to investigate the differing perceptions that parents and teachers in six NSW country centres have of the primary school curriculum, in order to provide a database which the participating schools may wish to use as a basis for curriculum change or further investigation. It is also hoped that the survey research instrument which has been developed during this research will be useful to other researchers interested in gauging the perceptions of parents and teachers of the primary school curriculum. The teachers and parents from six primary schools in the North West Education Region of NSW were involved in the study. Based upon a previous questionnaire designed by Mason ( 1973) a research instrument was developed by the present researcher. A survey using this instrument formed the basis of the investigation. It was found that parents and teachers generally agree that schools are providing a high standard of learning. It was also found that parents and teachers strongly support the vast majority of learning areas currently comprising the primary school curriculum, which was perceived to be responsible for the total development of the child with social, personal, physical and aesthetic development complimenting academic development. One area was considered significantly less important and well achieved and this related to religious aspects of the curriculum. Significant levels of agreement were generally found to exist between parents and teacher. The perceptions of parents were slightly more positive than those of teachers with respect to how successful schools are in major areas of the curriculum. Parents and teachers also agreed upon the importance and achievement of areas of the curriculum dealing with the basics - 3R's. Parents and teachers also agreed strongly that a number of areas of the curriculum were significantly underachieved, especially relating to personal development. Considerable differences were revealed between the participating schools, with no particular pattern emerging."

 
 

"Rodgers, K. E. (1990). Discipline in education: its nature and implementation in schools. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

This thesis is basically a philosophical analysis of the concept of discipline, utilising both linguistic and logical analysis. The analysis initially takes the form of an examination of instances of disciplined behaviour in non-school situations, to determine how the words 'discipline' and 'disciplined' are commonly used. The analysis also makes use of philosophical analyses previously undertaken by educational philosophers, to assist in the identification of necessary and contingent elements of ' discipline'. When formulating school discipline policy, three basic elements need to be considered: the goals of schooing; the tasks of schooling; and the disciplinary techniques or methods. 'Discipline', as an approach to achieving goals in all areas of life, is an aim of education as well as a means of achieving academic and social goals. 'Discipline' is a part of moral education, but the concept of 'discipline' is not necessarily a moral concept. This view of discipline has implications for policy, in that 'discipline' must be considered in relation to all the school curricula, goals and tasks, not as an isolated facet of schooling, or linked only to moral education or pupil welfare."

 
 

"Sheerman, R. (1990). To what extent can a distinctive Christian perspective be presented in a curriculum designed by a secular system. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the extent to which a distinctive Christian perspective can be presented in a curriculum designed by a secular system. The evaluation is mainly limited to an examination and comparison of the documents of one Christian parent controlled school, and selected documents representing the NSW state curriculum for secondary schools. While there are several important words in the topic of the thesis, the key word is perspective. Accordingly, a significant part of the study is devoted to identifying and describing the assumptions and presuppositions of seven key aspects of the contrasting secular and Christian perspectives. These seven key areas are: knowledge; the nature of humankind; the relationship between humankind, God and knowledge; religion; the relationship between religion and curriculum; the purpose of education, particularly as it relates to formal schooling; and, whose responsibility it is for educating the child. The intentional aims and objectives of the state syllabuses and the Christian school were compared. Considering that the aims and objectives of the secular system are mandatory for all schools in NSW it was not surprising to find that the stated aims of the secular system subjects, and those of the Christian school under evaluation, were almost identical."

 
 

"Stone, M. C. (1990). The system - the ogre? The effect of system requirements on government secondary principals' ability to adapt their schools' curriculum structures. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEdAdmin

It is part of educational folklore that Australian State school systems are highly centralised. A corollary of that lore is that schools generally lack the organisational flexibility to provide adequately for the diverse educational needs of their students. This study tested these beliefs, especially as they related to state school systems in the states of Queensland and New South Wales. The researcher found that system-level directives are more prescriptive in the latter state. In both states, however, the proportion of time which must be devoted to prescribed activities, for both teachers and pupils, is less than many would expect. Even where head office directives appeared to be constraining, regional office staff can practice 'benign neglect' in their policing of the directives, if they can see that there are educationally sound reasons for doing so. A wide range of curricular structures was found within schools functioning in the same system. This indicated that a number of other elements, many less tangible, were influential in affecting a principal's ability to adjust curriculum structures. Of prime importance were a principal's perceptions of systemic reality, including system guidelines. The study found that there is sufficient substance in the folklore to give conservative principals an excuse to resist introducing innovations in their schools. Nevertheless, any principals who are determined to adapt their schools' operations to serve better the educational needs of their students are unlikely to be prevented by central directives."

 
 

"Whan, C. M. (1990). A philosophical study of three dimensional expression as interpreted by Australian school curricula. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt

This study attempts to define and analyse the way three dimensional expression is treated in Australian school curriculum policy documents. The discussion of art education in different states and territories emphasises the similarities in goals and range of content proposed, and notes the many differences in approach and style."

 

QLD

 
 

"Allen, J. R. (1990). Decoding the secondary school timetable: a study of the identification and significance of its structure. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

PhD

The aim of this research was to create, test and evaluate a method for the analysis of secondary school timetables. The method reduces timetables to a simplified schematised standard form, a structure which shows systematic relationships amongst a timetable's main epistemological features. The method was applied to ten timetables collected in 1985 and 1986 from a range of Queensland secondary schools. Nine of the ten timetables proved to have a well- defined internal structure. The analyses of the ten timetables led to the induction of generalisable results, which were also supported by theoretical considerations of an abstract structure. The evidence of the timetable structures supports the general predictions of reproduction theory about types of relationships of knowledge, but there are also specific features which suggest the potential of this method to contribute to the studies of the micro-politics of schools advocated by S J Ball. The results suggest that some features of subject curricula can be explained in terms of the structure of the timetable within which those curricula operate. The reduction of timetables to a standard form facilitates comparisons and contrasts between them and, it is suggested, between schools."

 
 

"Bachler, K. F. (1990). The development of a religious education program for years 9 and 10 to meet the needs of ROSBA principles and requirements. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEdSt

This thesis focuses on the development of a religious education program for Years 9 and 10 to meet the needs of Review of School- Based Assessment (ROSBA) principles and requirements. Through a review of the literature this thesis establishes initally that the study of religion can be accepted as a discipline. A short historical overview is given of the development of teaching Religious Education in the Queensland context in relation to some problems and more recent developments that have helped to improve what was an ailing system. A program for Years 9 and 10 is developed according to the guidelines established by the Board of Senior Secondary School Studies.

 
 

"Edwards, A. (1990). School based assessment and curriculum change in Queensland: health and physical education. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

PhD

This study attempts to describe and explain the Review of School Based Assessment (ROSBA) health and physical education (HPE) innovation, and to generate at a substantive level theory which can make sense of events at Seaview, Newport, Northcliffe and St Anne's secondary schools in Queensland and to provide an account of how the ROSBA curriculum innovation responded to its context. To achieve this there is acknowledgement of the view that the curriculum process is at root political and ideological. The methods of data collection used in this study, were employed within the dynamic process of the research act, which was guided primarily by a ' grounded-theory' approach to field work. The 'grounded theory' approach of Glaser and Strauss involves the systematic generation of theory from data. The guiding principle is 'theoretical sampling'. Theoretical sampling in this study developed two distinct stages; the second developing out of the first. The first stage involved the identification of several issues from teachers at Seaview School. The second stage developed out of dissatisfactions with the interactions and theoretical framework, and as a result of an interest in the wider social, historical, economical and political factors which may have been underpinning the ROSBA HPE curriculum."

 
 

"Freakley, M. (1990). Understanding outdoor education: a case of subject definition. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEdSt

In Australia, as in other countries, the meaning of outdoor education varies from site to site across the educational landscape. Some practitioners have involved themselves in public discourse to 'clarify' its meaning and to achieve consensus over the aims and future directions of this curriculum area. This study specifically challenges an implied assumption of the debate that there ought to be only one correct definition of outdoor education. The study develops a theoretical background wherein it is proposed that the very nature of the debate, along with the everyday actions of outdoor education teachers and their students at educational sites, constitutes the ongoing creation and re- creation of outdoor education. By seeking to understand the nature of that process this study seeks to give due attention to the socio-historical context of the debate, and, in the long term, to contribute to the understanding of the socio- historical influences that shape education and schooling."

 
 

"Gilbraith, H. (1990). Primary prevention and appropriate instruction for children regarded as educationally 'at risk' in terms of literacy acquisition. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEdSt

This thesis discusses the acquisition of literacy in young children considered to be educationally 'at risk'. The research literature reviewed supports the notion that appropriate instruction involves the teacher as 'a capable other' in an interpersonal relationship. This developmental framework refers to the Vygotskian concept of 'a zone of proximal development' as the child is coached through a process of development. Within this process it is suggested that there is a sequence of development which is useful when conceptualising how to assist individuals to learn literacy. The first stage in this sequence requires an appreciation of the child's current developmental status and what causal mechanisms can be identified to serve as a guide as to what will be coached. The second stage involves arousing the child's capacity for 'inner- speech' so as to assist 'self- talk' and analysis of speech. Both of these stages if coached effectively will contribute to the third stage of automaticity in basic skills essential for efficient reading.

 
 

"Leppik, J. (1990). An approach to teaching and assessing social concepts. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEdSt

One approach to the teaching of social concepts was investigated. Personal knowledge construction, which emphasises the importance of the learner's prior knowledge and proposes as paramount in learning the interaction between 'old' knowledge and new information, is assumed. From within this perspective Jenkin's (1979) Theorists' Tethrahedron was used to explore the essential factors in the learning process, namely: the nature of the knowledge; the critical task; learner characteristics; learning activities; and their interactions. For the nature of the knowledge a view of the concept of conflict is offered and an expert concept map constructed. Individual student concept map construction is argued as the most effective method of accessing students' internal representations of conflict to reveal any effects of learning. The learners' characteristics are examined from the viewpoint of schema theory and include important affective elements. Instructional strategies identified in non- social cognitive studies as promoting learning activities which encourage connections between new and old knowledge are explored. The basic similarities in knowledge construction assumed to occur in non-social and social cognition led to the testing of two hypotheses which sought to show that effect of prior knowledge and the use of the above strategies on knowledge construction were also manifested in the social domain."

 
 

"Loh, G. (1990). The history teacher's role in construing and enacting an innovative mode of practice in history education. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

PhD

This study examines the history teacher's role in construing and enacting an innovative way of teaching the subject to first year secondary (or Secondary One) students in schools in Singapore. The teacher's response to curricular change is examined from the perspective of the individual teacher. The five teachers who participated in the main study formed the data source. A variety of methods was used. The emphasis was on the exploration and elaboration of the individual teacher's construction and enactment of his or her role in curricular change and how that role changed over time. The repertory grid employed in the main study was designed so that teachers construed the experiences associated with their roles as History teachers. The grid was elicited from the teachers at the beginning and at the end of the main study. As the grid was elicited on two occasions, it served as a repeated measure on which to structure the sequence of report and reflection that all five teachers engaged in with the researcher over a period of two terms (ie. from January-May, 1988). In addition, other data collection methods were chosen that complemented this emphasis on the individual and the extent of change. Each teacher was asked at the beginning of the main study to write about his or her work and explain how s/he planned lessons for Secondary One History students. After trialling the innovative materials for a period of one term, each teacher was asked to complete an open-ended questionnaire on teacher beliefs, planning and actions. The teacher was also given an opportunity to evaluate the innovative mode of practice. The teacher was also given an opportunity to evaluate the innovative mode of practice. Additional data in the form of transcripts of interviews and classroom teaching were available to the researcher. The data provided by the study support the belief that teachers can make or break an innovation since they control implementation."

 
 

"Nailon, D. (1990). Changes in teacher thinking about influences on curriculum design in early childhood care and education: a personal construct study. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEdSt

A Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) Approach was adopted to investigate changes in teacher thinking about influences on curriculum design in early childhood care and education (ECCE) that resulted from participating in a short inservice education course. Reviews were conducted into previous research on teacher thinking and into the role of inservice education on changing teacher thinking. This study argued that Kelly's (1955) Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) provided the most useful framework for considering changes that occurred in teacher thinking about socio-ecological variables that influenced their curriculum design. Kelly's PCP was reviewed with particular emphasis on the commonality and sociality corollaries as they related to teachers' participation in an inservice course. The conceptual framework for the study was based on Sutherland's (1983) study of the impact a short parent education course had on parents' beliefs about child rearing. Major conclusions were drawn. Teachers mainly focused on children as objects of their curriculum decision making. Parents and administrators input was generally construed in terms of immediate support, but as somewhat negative. Changes in teacher thinking occurred with respect to teacher-held-theory, and how teachers' construed contextual input to decision making. Focus on children's input changed towards a more negotiated approach. Changes in constructs regarding parents' and administrators input varied. Some constructs remained the same. Changes in self perception of programming ability also varied among the groups of teachers."

 
 

"O'Toole, J. R. (1990). Process in drama: an investigation of processuality in the art form, with particular reference to the genre known as drama in education. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

PhD

This study sets out to investigate aspects of processuality of the art form of drama first by defining process as: the negotiation and renegotiation of the elements of dramatic form, in terms of the purposes of the participants. Secondly, it applies this definition to an original model of the elements of drama, adapted by the writer from a recent model created by himself and a colleague for state drama syllabuses and a schools textbook. This model is not seen as more than a temporary holding form, through which the basic characteristics of drama may be examined in terms of their negotiability. Thirdly, the particular genre of drama selected for close examination is drama in education. This phrase is used to denote, not all the manifestations of drama in education settings, but a very specific combination of processual drama practices that together, in the last two decades, have consolidated into what, it is asserted, forms a distinctive and stable dramatic genre."

 
 

"Reynolds, J. C. (1990). Adolescent nutrition education: from cognition to action. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEdAd

The purpose of this study is to formulate an action control approach for school-based adolescent nutrition education. The study shows how three key procedural frameworks emerge for consideration when developing an approach for nutrition education: the contextual structures, which illuminate appropriate learning experiences and content; the cognitive structures, which illuminate how students can control actions through their cognitive processes; and the academic task structure which identifies teacher and student strategies for learning how to control actions. In the study, the contextual and cognitive structures which underlie food-related behaviours are analysed, and the analyses illuminated with relevant literature. The findings are synthesised to formulate a school- based action control program for adolescent nutrition education. The program aims to facilitate adolescent control over food- related behaviour, such that when students develop intentions toward a particular food habit, they are in a position to realise their intentions."

 
 

"Robinson, J. R. (1990). Future directions for commercial education in Queensland's state secondary schools. Townsville QLD, James Cook University of North Queensland."

MEd

This dissertation is concerned with the future of commercial education in Queensland's state secondary schools. Its particular concern is with charting future directions for commercial education, directions which will assist in providing all secondary students with an education which is more relevant and equitable than that which is currently offered. Commercial education in secondary schools is currently undergoing major changes. These changes have been brought about by a group of interrelated factors, including: the changed, and changing structure of the Australian workforce; unemployment (particularly amongst youth); increased school retention rates; and technological advances. Of particular concern to commercial teachers at present in the Queensland Government's drive to have technology integrated into the commercial curriculum as soon as possible. Commercial education in Queensland is at a crossroad. It is the purpose of this dissertation to study closely the changes which have occurred, and are about to occur, in commercial education. Through an examination of this nature, it is hoped that future directions for commercial education can be charted."

 
 

"Rose, K. P. (1990). Authority and postcompulsory education. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEdSt

Postcompulsory education is an emerging phase of educational practice. Within the turmoil of the development of new institutional arrangements, little consideration of the normative aspects of the relationship between teachers and students has been undertaken. In order to provide some guide for institutional practice, this paper considers the form of authority which might be appropriate to the rights, responsibilities and freedoms of the students and teachers within this phase of education. Broadly, the discussion centres on the distinguishing features of the concept of authority, drawn from an examination of the relationship between the concepts of authority, power, reasons, identity and freedom, and draws implications that these features have for educational practice. Rawls' theory of justice is adopted as an appropriate framework from which to examine the professional and institutional authority relationships between teachers and postcompulsory students. Implications are drawn for institutional practices together with specific recommendations for a changed professional relationship in the light of the recognition of the changed levels of responsibility and freedom of postcompulsory students."

 
 

"Sibley, G. W. H. (1990). An evaluation and analysis of aspects of 'Education 2000'. Townsville QLD, James Cook University of North Queensland."

MEd

The publication of 'Education 2000' in 1985 was greeted at the time with widespread public debate. There were open meetings which were held in all major centres and the public was invited to make written comment on the proposals outlined. In all, 927 submissions were received which indicates that there was considerable awareness and concern over matters raised in the discussion paper. Nevertheless, at the end of all the discussion and reviews, there seemed to be little to show for it. The submissions were received and the response was silence, broken briefly by the distribution of the Review Committee's report in the following year. It was made clear in the Foreword to the Review Committee's Report, by the then Minister, Mr Lin Powell, that any further action would be an internal matter for the Department of Education and the Queensland Government. Even the reviewing committee, chaired by Emeritus Professor G W Bassett, seemed unsure as to its purpose. The Committee found itself in the position of being both a review committee and, in some respects, a committee of inquiry. The latter role it judged itself to be ill equipped to carry out fully. Yet ' Education 2000' touched on many issues that were, and still are, of definite concern to all those who are associated with the education system in Queensland. It cannot be dismissed as being of no consequence."

 
 

"Stewart Dore, M. N. (1990). Writing and learning history in Year 8: an ethnographic study. Townsville QLD, James Cook University of North Queensland."

PhD

This ethnographic study of writing and learning history, conducted in the context of a single, working class Year 8 classroom, had three goals: to describe significant referential contexts established individually by the class teacher and collaboratively with the researcher; to provide evidence of the kinds of writing and learning that occurred in response to Referential Source Encounters ( RSE) in those contexts; and to highlight certain patterns and insights connecting referential sources of evidence and information used in History lessons, and the writing students produced in transaction with them. Data collected as a result of participant observation in History lessons include both the Year 8 class teacher' s and student's spoken and written texts, with a range of such protocols forming the main corpus. It represents the content focus of lessons and allows analyses of interactions with texts. From these analyses, case studies of a student writer and his teacher focus on the relationships between teacher discourse and the assigned writing tasks students attempt. They contrast with teacher- researcher collaborations where students write in exploratory/ reflective and extensive modes. These findings suggest the need to plan for History curriculum critique and for construal into a framework for writing-to-learn history. From the perspective of a socially critical pedagogy, the proposed writing-to- learn history curriculum construal features historiography and evidential enquiry and reconstruction methodology as its organising principles."

 
 

"Ward, G. E. (1990). Demonstrations of foreshadowing: building a theory and a pedagogy. Townsville QLD, James Cook University of North Queensland."

PhD

This study explores the nature of foreshadowing in text as an aspect of the writer's craft in order to build a theory of active reading which would give rise to demonstrations of textuality. It treats the instances of foreshadowing as demonstrations of craft in writing and stresses that foreshadowing occurs in transactions between readers and texts. It seeks to show the potential for teachers as readers to provide demonstrations to students of reading practices which engage with text in such ways that the text may be exposed as existing at different levels. The study thus uses the developing theory as a base for building a pedagogy for foreshadowing and other aspects of reading and writing. An interlocking series of conceptual analyses explores the concepts of demonstration and foreshadowing, and also the interrelationships of reading, writing and interpretation. Textual analyses in the study demonstrate that identification of foreshadowing is practicable. The theory provided by the study asserts that text has the potential to be seen as transparent or opaque, and that the skilled and active reader can shift attention from one level to another during a reading. The study reviews the whole language orientation to pedagogy, and suggest that it could absorb some of the features of a genre approach to language teaching with benefit, through a greater emphasis on the ways in which texts work and acceptance of the flexibility of attention which can be paid to text without losing a focus on meaning. A range of pedagogical strategies explored in primary school classrooms is recommended as providing effective demonstrations of the textuality involved in identifying and employing foreshadowing in reading and writing."

SA

 
 

"Hogarth, J. F. S. (1990). Theoretical foundations for context-sensitive Christian theological education: a narrative model. Bedford Park SA, Flinders University of South Australia."

MA

"This work presents a model of Christian theological education that aims to be more context-sensitive than the dominant Western model of theological education often referred to as the fourfold curriculum of Bible, doctrine, church history and practical theology. It is felt that this has current importance in a world now referred to as a global village, and in an increasingly multicultural Australia. The thesis is interdisciplinary in theology and education. Its focus is the content and curriculum of theological education. It examines the foundations of Christian theology and education in order to articulate a suitable trans-cultural model. The study links analyses of the narrative character of the Christian Bible and tradition, looking at how the norms articulated here are interpreted into other sociocultural and religious contexts. The nature of religious language as essentially metaphorical is examined and found to be both reality depicting and contextual."

 
 

"O'Donoghue, M. T. (1990). Myth and religion education. Adelaide SA, University of Adelaide."

MEd

'Myth' is an important category in the study of religion and therefore in religion education curricula. But it has fallen into confusion. Its meaning is no longer clear and this has debilitating effects on the discussion of myth in religion education curricula. The theoretical discussions of myth provide a rich fare but no conceptual clarity in the matter of definition. A definition of myth is developed centring on its nature as story and as a particular type of sacred story. Using this as the framework, the South Australian religious education curricula materials are reviewed with a view to showing how they could be improved by adopting the proposed perspective."

 
 

"Shaw, W. F. T. (1990). A consideration of selected issues in the organisation of special programs for children gifted in the performing arts. Bedford Park SA, Flinders University of South Australia."

MEdAdmin

The study considers selected issues in the organisation of special programs for children gifted in the performing arts. The material for the study derives from a survey of relevant background literature, together with a questionnaire designed to gain insights into current thinking and practice in selected school settings. The study finds that there is a growing awareness, reflected in the literature and the questionnaire responses, that special provision should be made in order to meet the special needs of gifted students, and that this provision should be made through organised, stable and officially recognised programs, rather than be dependent solely on the enthusiasm and commitment of individuals working alone. There is considerable evidence of the benefit to gifted arts students of placing them in special programs where they are able to interact with like- minded persons, and there appears to be no evidence of socially negative outcomes of such participation. The excellence/equity debate continues to be a sensitive issue, and it seems that the philosophical bases on which particular programs are developed are important in gaining and sustaining a broad base of support to ensure their continued existence. The organisational structures of special programs for gifted arts students are seen to be of central importance in ensuring their effectiveness and success, and the study suggests the need for further research and development in aspects of student selection, curriculum, staffing, evaluation procedures and teacher education. It also advocates the development and maintenance of networks of communication on a national and cross-national basis between schools offering performing arts programs for gifted students."

VIC

 
 

"Anderson, S. J. (1990). A study of educational theory and practice in social studies for the purpose of identifying expectations concerning primary teacher librarians as partners in cooperative curriculum instruction. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This study examines relevant theory for both primary teacher librarianship and primary teacher education in the area of social education in order to determine the expectations and responsibilities of the role of the primary teacher librarian in regard to use of resources and library related information skills required for resource based learning. Experience of teacher librarians in schools has revealed the need for integrated planning and teaching of appropriate skills in the context of classroom curriculum for effective resource based learning to be achieved and for the development of independent learners. However, surveys of preservice and practising teachers indicate that many teachers seem to have little expectation of collaborating with the teacher librarian so that library focused information skills can be taught at a time when children are needing to gather and use information for curriculum purposes."

 
 

"Beckett, D. (1990). On democratic schooling: an analysis of developments in Victoria. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This is a thesis in philosophy of education. There are many points of contact between philosophy and education, and there are bodies of intellectual enquiry in the English- speaking analytic tradition of philosophy which are centrally concerned with issues clustering around teaching and learning, the formal provision of these in schooling and society in general, and more generally, the nature of knowledge, truth, justice, identity and reality insofar as these are part of educative processes and outcomes. Traditions of philosophical enquiry which have engaged with these issues in influential ways have become philosophies of education in their own right, and have contributed to, and informed continuing debates over the provision and practice of schooling in western societies which are themselves democratic in political outlook, and capitalist in economic activity. Indeed, it can be shown that these two aspects of western societies have symbiotically influenced philosophical enquiry in general and deliberations on education in particular. Relatively discrete philosophies of education, it would seem, can then be fairly regarded as products, as much as ingredients, of the intellectual and material life of a society."

 
 

"Boughen, R. E. (1990). Orff, Kodaly, Dalcroze and Suzuki: a comparative and developmental study in relation to the Australian context. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

This research essay examines four approaches to music education used in Australia today: Orff Schulwerk, the Kodaly System, Dalcroze Eurhythmics and Suzuki Talent Education. Each of the music education approaches is summarised and their underlying philosophies are examined. The manner in which they are applied is illustrated and an evaluation of each of the approaches is discussed. The positive and negative aspects of each is compared. The conclusion that ' feeling' ought to precede intellectual understanding in a holistic music education program leads to a construction of an approach incorporating the positive aspects from the current methodologies to music education."

 
 

"Burton, B. (1990). The act of learning: the drama-theatre continuum in the classroom. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

The development of educational drama since its inception in this century has been characterised by an emphasis on learning which is either individual or social, and a rejection of the art form of the theatre as relevant to this learning. This thesis seeks to demonstrate that the work of the four major theatrical innovators of this century - Stanislavski, Grotowski, Artaud and Brecht - is fundamental to the teaching of educational drama. The theatre and drama in the classroom are identified as part of the same continuum of experience, with facts of process drama present throughout rehearsal and performance in the theatre, and theatrical elements identifiable in spontaneous drama of all kinds. The five main elements of learning available through drama are described as: imagination; creativity; identification; transformation; and discovery, and their use by four major drama practitioners is explored. The use of these same elements of learning by the four theatre innovators, consciously functioning as educators, is demonstrated. Finally, a major new curriculum document is examined, illustrating the contribution the theatre innovators have to make to drama in the classroom."

 
 

"Byrne, C. (1990). Drama in education: words into action. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

The senior years of education in Victorian schools underwent significant changes as a result of the introduction of the new Victorian Certificate of Education in 1991. This study examines the ways in which the Victorian Certificate of Education influences: the perceived purpose of schooling at this level; the method of developing curriculum; and the discipline of drama. The study design Drama is explored, in a hypothetical situation, in order to assess the efficacy of the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Board's Study Structure Approach to curriculum construction. Focus is placed upon the question: is it possible for the teacher to maintain ownership of the curriculum under the Victorian Certificate of Education?"

 
 

"Carlisle, B. J. (1990). Women, sport and education. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This thesis discusses the nature and significance of sport for girls in Australian schools and addresses the issues of the single sex and coeducational learning environments. While it is clear that there are no obvious physiological or psychological reasons for the current under- representation of females in sport, male construed and transmitted values deeply embedded in Australian society still continue to shape attitudes and perceptions of the role of women in sport and physical recreation. The impact of the socialising forces including the family, teachers and the media is sufficiently influential to produce a significant disparity between male and female sports participation. This problem is examined and evaluated with ideas proposed to develop and foster a more equitable representation of women in sport."

 
 

"Casinader, N. R. (1990). Economic and social development as an element in geographic education within Victorian secondary schools: past, present and future. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

The inclusion of economic and social development as a theme in secondary geography curricula has been a major point of discussion amongst educational geographers in Victoria during the 1980's. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the validity and place of this concept within the changing educational paradigm of geography since 1960, and thereby to establish guidelines for the teaching of such concerns in secondary geography, with particular emphasis on the Victorian experience. The findings of this dissertation are centred on two main contentions. The first is that the future validity of development concerns as an element in secondary geography curricula depends upon a revision of the paradigm of educational geography. The second contention is that the use of the term development education is inappropriate given the goals and parameters of the educational field, and that a new phraseology needs to be devised to describe this area of geographic education."

 
 

"de Souza, M. D. (1990). The design and evaluation of a music course for Year 7 students in Victoria. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

Abstract not available

 
 

"Frijo, F. (1990). Understanding and technique: new developments in curriculum: the case of Catholic education. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

It seems that the practice of intellectuals as carried by the intellectually trained, namely abstract analytical skill, has become constitutive of the modern high technology society. In the world of work, for example, flexible skill formation through the acquisition of generic skills has come to be more important than knowing anything in particular. Information has come to be valued more than knowledge. The increasing use of computers and robotics has altered the workplace and the kind of education needed by people for this new workplace. The need for an efficient and productive workforce has meant that education must be turned to meeting economic needs more. Intellectual culture, then, especially as expressed by scientific intellectuals has become closely allied to the forces of production. Now Catholic schools have claimed a form of distinctiveness from the state system based on a religious education program and more especially a Christian ethos that permeates its structures. If however, they absorb the new emphases, these, coupled with internal tensions already present in Catholic education, could undermine the very basis of this distinctiveness. The question to be examined becomes, then, whether or not Catholic schools in particular and education in general can find a practice that challenges the dominance of a narrow form of intellectual technique."

 
 

"Goldsworthy, P. S. (1990). Continuity and change in the senior secondary geography curriculum in Victoria from the late 1950's to the late 1980's. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This study of the nature of secondary Geography in Victoria over recent times, stems from an initial analysis in the first chapter, of an article by I F Goodson and it seeks to establish the degree to which curriculum developments in Victoria mirror Goodson's perception of the British situation. The study of the Year 11 and Year 12 curricula - course objectives, content and structure, and assessment - over the past three decades, with particular emphasis on the last ten years, takes place in the next chapter. The directions foreshadowed in Chapter Three have many of their origins in previous courses. The VCE developments bring to the fore the relationship of Geography and Environmental Studies and an attempt to accommodate both disciplines, as outlined in the fourth chapter. The final chapter concludes that some continuity has existed, that the majority of changes were not to counter 'meliorism' but ones leading to improvement and that there has been a gradual re- awakening of what Geography really is."

 
 

"Hamilton, A. E. (1990). Skilling the Australian community: futures in public education: young people's perspectives. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

Young people were interviewed to ascertain their perceptions of Australia in the next ten years and what skills that they expected that school leavers (ie. secondary school leavers) will need to have to cope with the future. The findings provided data for a national conferences, sponsored by the Commission for the Future and the Australian Teachers' Federation, in Melbourne in April, 1988. The conference explored the demands on education as seen by representatives of six user groups of education, including industry, parents and students. The methodology was basically determined by the nature of the project. The young people reached an 'agreed statement' for the project. Their attitude towards the future indicated uncertainty, anxiety and pessimism and that their lives will be increasingly controlled by impersonal technology. The young people believed that there are four main areas of skill development needed by school leavers to cope with the future. The areas are: intellectual/academic; vocational; social; and personal. Some details are provided for each of the skill areas. The young people believed that the development of these skills should be possible through the public education system. Consideration is given to the possibility of implementing student participation and school-work relationships - two of the areas seen as important for the skill development of young people."

 
 

"Headlam, W. V. W. (1990). Preparing a bank of mathematical problems for Year 11 students. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

The production of a problem bank for Year 11 mathematics students forms the content of this thesis. From an original collection of approximately 100 problems, 30 were chosen representing the areas of algebra, geometry and arithmetic. The RASCH method was used for calibrating the problems using partial credit scoring. There were 452 students in 37 Year 11 classes from 8 Victorian secondary schools that participated. Details of the selection, administration and use of the problems are discussed. Some of the difficulties such as finding problems at the appropriate level of difficulty, establishing a suitable classification for them, defining a marking scheme for their solution and the interpretation of the analysis of the scores are also given. The problem bank in its final form contains 23 problems, and could be used by Year 11 mathematics teachers for assessing students' progress in mathematical problem solving. For ease of use the problems are categorised by area of study and level of difficulty. The methodology involved in developing the problem bank, the processes of selecting and categorising problems and the analysis of student attempts to solve them would also be helpful for these teachers as they incorporate problem solving into their VCE courses."

 
 

"Hernandez, A. (1990). Reflections on a science course review: a retrospective account of a curriculum development by a participating teacher. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This thesis is an affirmation of teacher participation and contribution. It is essentially an analysis of the transactions and processes that occurred in a science course review using the reflective retrospective account model of a single instance of curriculum development.

 
 

"Jenkins, V. A. (1990). The conceptualisation of changing government policy on a school level. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

The central purpose of this research is to examine one policy initiative - Ministerial Paper No.6 - in the context of the way teachers at a suburban Melbourne high school have understood it. A case study approach was utilised to understand how a particular school deals with change based on the experiences of teachers and administrators within the school and in relation to external expectations. The case study used questionnaires, interviews and participant observation over a three year time frame to depict the knowledge and attitudes of teachers to the policy in question. Attention was given to the differing perspectives and knowledge held by representatives of the government at regional level, by school administrators and by teachers. The study found that there was universal awareness of Ministerial Paper No.6 during the period 1985- 1986 and that this was the result of initiatives taken at the school level. Generally, there was consensus on the need for change and agreement in principle with the major thrusts of the policy. However, practical issues concerning implementation, internal factors militating against change and the flood of documents and discussion papers during the period of the study precluded fundamental changes from occurring."

 
 

"Lam, M. M. H. (1990). The influences that shape bilingual education programs. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This study set out to examine some social and cultural processes that have characterised the current century and to note the effect of these on the development of bilingual education programs. Four countries were selected as examples of how the national needs and goals have shaped the structure and nature of these programs. In an Asian country such as Singapore, the goals were to gain access to technological and economic domains whilst maintaining the traditional cultural value systems. In Sweden the purpose was to allow the maintenance of ethnic identity. Whilst in Wales, the aim was to reaffirm cultural values and ensure that the language was not lost through the absorption of English. The Canadians sought to develop programs that improved language teaching method, promoted harmony between the different cultural groups and provided a basis for the expression of a distinctive Canadian culture and way of life. In the United States the purpose of bilingual education was to increase English mastery. In Australia, the reemergence of bilingual education programs came about through changes in the way learning was to be encouraged in the young. An analysis of the programs showed that the effective programs must be planned and delivered on an ongoing basis and that the success of the current programs is basically due to the commitment of the teachers involved. The long term success of bilingual programs can only be assured if sufficient resources and skilled staff are made available."

 
 

"Lockey, C. M. (1990). A clue structure for analysing the philosophical underpinnings of science education publications. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

The purpose of this thesis is the development of an 'alternative approach' to science education research based on a theoretical perspective derived from informal analysis (taken from Roberts and Russell 1975). The philosophical analyses of science of Feyerabend and Althussar were chosen as the theoretical perspectives. A clue structure was then developed from these two philosophies of science. The clue structure was then applied to leader articles in The Australian Science Teachers' Journal (ASTJ). During this process many clues were rewritten and refined. An enhanced clue structure resulted. Several issues debated in the ASTJ were then discussed in terms of the clue structure. These issues included the creation/evolution debate; values movement; science, technology and science (STS) movement; and history and philosophy of science in science education. In the case of the first three issues, the clue structure showed its usefulnees in clarifying perceptions. In the last issue, the history and philosophy of science, the clue structure was not entirely relevant."

 
 

"Lynch, M. J. (1990). Teaching human relations in secondary schools. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This paper examines the teaching of Human Relations (HR) in secondary schools. It concludes with a comprehensive HR course that could be used at years 9, 10 or 11 in a secondary school. The paper defines HR, discusses the content of HR courses (through a survey undertaken by the author) and stresses the importance of the correct classroom climate in teaching HR. An integrated approach to teaching is shown to be the most appropriate for HR courses. An integrated approach is one where the course crosses over subject boundaries and does not restrict itself to remaining within one discipline. Expectations of the community in regards to schooling in general and HR teaching in particular are also examined. The paper also shows how to introduce an HR course to a school. The pitfalls, physical requirements and ways of evaluating the effectiveness of the course are shown, mainly through action research. This method is discussed in detail with particular emphasis on how this research method allows the HR course to be continually updated in response to student demands. The concluding section of the paper brings together the earlier material and produces an HR course. As well as directions for the students, there are notes for the teacher concerning assessment, problems with training teachers to teach the course, the reasons for the content within the HR course, discipline approaches and the emphasis on games as group building tools."

 
 

"McKenzie, P. A. (1990). Secondary school size, curriculum structure and resource use: a study in the economics of education. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

PhD

This study examines the interrelationships between secondary school enrolment size, curriculum structure, and resource deployment in the Victorian government school system. It uses an extensive body of school- level data to analyse the effects of enrolment size on the allocation of teacher time to and within secondary schools. Based on a review of the scale economies literature three potential sources of scale economies in secondary schools are identified: indivisibilities in the supply of specialist facilities and personnel; the gains from teacher specialisation; and the opportunities that large schools have to provide more comprehensive curricula. The existence of these factors is investigated through a detailed analysis of teacher time deployment in schools of different sizes. A model is developed that makes explicit the linkages between curriculum provision and teacher time use. Based on this model and a review of the literature four main hypotheses are proposed: that the rate of increase in curriculum breadth and depth will decline as schools increase in size; that there will be a positive relationship between school size and the percentage of teacher time allocated to class teaching; that there will be upper limits to the extent that teachers specialise in the nature of their classroom teaching; and that the relationships between average class size and school size, and between per student expenditure on teachers' salaries and school size, will be hyperbolic in nature. As well as investigating these hypotheses at the whole- school level, the relationships between the size of the enrolment group in years 7 to 10 (the junior year levels) and years 11 and 12 (the senior year levels) and curriculum provision in those year levels are also analysed. General support is found for each of the major hypotheses. Although large schools provide more comprehensive curricula than small schools at a lower per student expenditure, it appears that once schools exceed about 800 students in size the curriculum and financial advantages of further increases in school size are relatively limited."

 
 

"Miller, A. D. C. (1990). A comparison of concept maps and cloze tests as revision techniques in senior high school chemistry: their effectiveness and influences on cognitive structures and deep-processing. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

A comparison of the effect of two revision techniques on the academic performance of students in senior high school chemistry was conducted. The underlying psychological theory had suggested that the technique which promoted the greatest amount of deep-level processing should be the one which created the most significant academic gains for the students who carried it out. It was also attempted to distinguish between the two revision techniques on the basis of the results they produced in both descriptive and quantitative material. Finally any sex differences in performance were also investigated for the two revision techniques. The results showed that there was an insignificant difference between the two techniques on all the factors which were statistically examined except the relationship between academic performance and the student' s ability on revision exercises. This result calls into question some of the underlying premises about the students' ability to construct concept maps.

 
 

"Ozolins, J. T. (1990). A philosophical analysis of the concept of education. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

PhD

The thesis critically examines some of the concepts involved in the elucidation of the concept of education developed by R S Peters who says that education is a family of processes whose purposes are the development of desirable states of mind. The thesis begins by briefly looking at behaviourist views of mind, and introduces the Identity Theory as an attempt to provide a better explication of the nature of mind. Feigl's views on the nature of mind are examined, in particular, his attempted reduction of the mental to the physical. His rejection of the concept of emergence is challenged and what is meant by the reduction of one theory to another is elucidated. It is concluded that the mental cannot be reduced to the physical. The features of scientific explanation in general are explored. It is found that scientific explanation is applicable largely in physical science contexts, and so is of limited use in explaining the concept of mind, and thus the concept of education. Teleological explanations are examined, since it is apparent that education is a teleological explanation. The question of whether teleological explanations can be reduced to non-teleological explanations is considered. An examination of the concept of intention and its relationship to action forms a major portion of the thesis. The problem of whether there can be several descriptions of one action is considered, as well as whether intentions are entailed by desires."

 
 

"Pascoe, S. M. (1990). The effectiveness of curriculum co-ordinator networks for Catholic secondary schools in Victoria. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEdAdmin

This study into the effectiveness of curriculum coordinator networks for Catholic secondary schools in Victoria focused on the evaluation of a pilot project in 1989. Specifically, the researcher sought to determine whether the availability of pilot convenors would enhance curriculum coordinators' perceptions of professional development, curriculum information and peer support via the networks. Simultaneously, the study described the pilot convenor role, thereby identifying the characteristics ascribed to effective network convenors and attempting to isolate factors which influence network effectiveness. Under the umbrella of illuminative evaluation, a range of research instruments were used, including interviews and questionnaires. Most curriculum coordinators who participated in this study believed they had informally rather than formally skilled themselves for their role, despite being multiply credentialled. Prior to the study they had a limited understanding of how the network could improve their professional skills - this consciousness was only marginally heightened during the project. Similarly evidence of peer support from within the network was scant prior to the pilot project and increased minimally during the study. Attitudes to the accessibility of curriculum information were very high prior to the project and increased slightly during the study. Curriculum coordinators placed a high value on information access via the network and the curriculum knowledge of convenors."

 
 

"Roe, R. M. (1990). Student managed learning: a case study. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

The notion that students should be encouraged to make curriculum decisions requiring their active participation in the design, implementation, management and assessment of their learning is a controversial issue. This research, through an examination of local and overseas literature on student learning, identified relevant pedagogical principles and explored, via a case study, a wide range and variety of student centred strategies culminating in the development of a practical approach for teachers interested in introducing the notion of student managed learning into their classrooms. In doing so it was essential that the research methodology was able to provide sufficient flexibility and sensitivity to respond to the changing demands encountered in the day-to-day activities of teachers, students and schools. The retrospective account by the researcher, who was also the classroom practitioner, incorporated an 'illuminative evaluation' process, which documented and analysed student- managed learning in the classroom. The research methodology describes actual practice, enabling the reader to 'visualise' what actually happened during the implementation and evaluation of the case study. Although the primary focus for the student interviews was to obtain their impressions of the value of student-managed learning, their comments provided a striking and illuminating critique of the conventional teaching and learning paradigm. This thesis represents a call to action: for educators to re- examine their current views on how people learn. It challenges them to pursue these strategies in order to encourage their students to develop the skills, knowledge and confidence to manage their own learning."

 
 

"Saulwick, J. A. (1990). Art and community schools in Victoria: a focus on the Artists and Architects in Schools Programs as models in evaluating negotiation and participatory decision making as a basis for developing arts curricula. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This study argues that the learning context should be linked not only with the student's growing knowledge and skill within the curriculum but it should also allow for an understanding of how that curriculum connects and relates with the democratic society of work and leisure. It is further argued, that as a consequence of arriving at that understanding, students acquire a sense of empowerment and control over their lives. The study establishes the historical background to the Artists and Architects in Schools Programs, and the role of the art teacher and the artists and architects within those programs. The thesis discusses the history and development of the state community school movement, its establishment in Victoria, and the radical nature of its underpinnings. Reference is also made to the private alternative school movement. The process of decision making in Croydon Community School and Sherbrooke Community School in respect to their Artists in Schools Programs is examined. The issues discussed are: three orientations to the curriculum; the American Discipline Based Art Education; and the recent curriculum guidelines of the Victorian Ministry of Education. A comparison is made of the approaches to learning and negotiating the curriculum between Swinburne Community School and Croydon Community School."

 
 

"Smith, B. G. (1990). A survey of computer policies and practices in selected Northern Metropolitan Region schools. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

During 1987, 108 schools - 76 primary (including 8 special schools) and 32 postprimary schools from the Northern Metropolitan Region of Melbourne provided responses to a questionnaire concerning three major issues of school computer use: numbers and brands of computers in schools, and major areas of computer usage; priorities for computer usage and the relationship between computer practices and the school's computer policy; and a sample of innovative programs. This thesis reviews responses from the schools to the major areas of the survey and details innovative computer use in eight selected schools. Implications of the survey are then compared with current trends from a small sample of schools in three areas of North America. The issues, outcomes and conclusions arising from the study are of direct relevance to current and future computer use in many schools."

 
 

"Snyder, I. A. (1990). The impact of word processors on students' writing: a comparative study of the effects of pens and word processors on writing context, process and product. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

PhD

This study investigates the impact of word processors on students' writing. It compares two Year 8 classes, one using pens for composing, the other, computers, within the context of an all-girls' school. A major emphasis of the research is the computer's impact on the quality of the texts the students produced. As part of the pretest-posttest design, the students responded to a questionnaire, to a writing tool preference inventory, and were required to produce texts which represented three genres: narrative; argument; and report. The texts were evaluated for productivity, syntactic complexity, precision, global quality and quality as determined by analytic measures. In order to examine the teaching-learning context, the researcher adopted the role of participant/observer, attending all lessons and recording observations, conversations, interactions and critical events. The findings suggested that the computer classroom was more student centred, less teacher dominated and more work focused. Overall the atmosphere was more cooperative, collaborative and interactive. The examination of the writing processes associated with particular tools revealed that composing behaviours varied according to the genre task rather than according to the influence of the writing tool. The preference data indicated that the computer students had a strong preference for composing narrative with pen and argument with word processors. The investigation of the quality of the texts produced with different tools offered strong evidence of the efficacy of word processing in the promotion of quality in argument and report and weaker evidence for narrative. These findings suggested that word processors are indeed effective as writing tools. Further, the findings suggested that word processors are useful for the genres with which junior- secondary students are less familiar, less confident and less competent, but which are recognised as instrumental in determining success at school as well as in the wider sociocultural context beyond school."

 
 

"Symonds, D. G. (1990). An administrative review of the Commonwealth English as a second language (ESL) program within the Office of Schools Administration, Ministry of Education, Victoria. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This thesis presents an administrative review of the Commonwealth English as a Second Language (ESL) Program within the Office of Schools Administration, Ministry of Education, Victoria. The approach and framework adopted are similar to those used by Campbell et al. in their review of the Commonwealth ESL Program for the Commonwealth Schools Commission in 1984. Data have been collected over a two year period from a variety of sources including policy documents, questionnaires, memoranda and minutes of meetings. Major issues raised include: the development of a nationwide curriculum framework/syllabus for the teaching of ESL; the location of ESL within the Office of Schools Administration; the location of consultancy support to schools; the level of resourcing; and the qualifications of ESL teachers."

 
 

"Tribe, J. (1990). A study of student perceptions of difficult genetic concepts. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This thesis reviews some broad issues of science teaching in order to place genetics within a science framework. Problems specifically pertinent to a genetics curriculum are then focussed upon. Three major areas of research in science learning are discussed. These are meaningful learning, concept mapping and problem solving. Meaningful learning is not just 'getting the right answer', but occurs when new concepts are linked to existing ones. Many researchers therefore stress the usefulness of concept mapping as a tool to encourage meaningful learning. Problem solving is a special case of meaningful learning and is also recognised as a skill applicable to novel situations. Recent literature indicates that teachers benefit from knowing which genetic concepts students perceive as difficult. Students in both Australia and Britain were surveyed and thirty statements were then placed in rank order of difficulty. These results supported previous research and confirmed the need to view a topic from the learner's point of view rather than just the teacher's standpoint."

 
 

"Unger, Z. M. (1990). Ideology critique and the production of meaning: a critical approach to selected urban education material. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

PhD

Ideology critique, when applied by educational research to the ideational content of curriculum materials, has evoked negative connotations of partiality and bias, misrepresentation of social reality, and ultimately, of untruth. This thesis attempts to assert a more positive sense of 'meaning production' for curriculum critique and shift emphasis away from representation towards signification. It reviews the management of questions of ideology and education by the sociology of school knowledge and curriculum research. It is argued that strategies of ideology critique, along structuralist and culturalist lines of difference, have inadequately addressed issues of critical subjectivity, hegemony, and social transformation that is posed by radical education. Four curriculum studies of textbook analysis are discussed in detail, in terms of their attachment to the sociology of school knowledge and in terms of the 'bias and balance' discourse that they produce. Analysis of the case study material also indicates that balance is not necessarily built-in as a result of a commitment to provide diverse expert opinion. This has implications for those practices of curriculum criticism and curriculum construction which attempt to locate and redress bias as well as promote critical thinking."

 
 

"Walsh, B. J. (1990). Australian studies: a vehicle for scientific and technological literacy? Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

The first part of the research essay identifies Australia's role in science and technology by looking at the past, present and future trends. It is recommended that the public understanding of science be promoted by increasing the level of scientific literacy in the community. Education can contribute to Australia's economic viability by offering relevant and interesting courses designed specifically to increase scientific literacy. The second part of the essay suggests that the Australian Studies course, which is compulsory at Year 11 as part of the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE), has the potential for promoting the knowledge, skills and attitudes of scientific literacy. The final part of the essay provides a way of looking at science and technology with young people to enable them to gain sufficient knowledge and understanding to deal with current scientific issues in an informed way. The propositions involving science and technology in Units 1-4 in the Year 11 and 12 Australian Studies course are examined and suggestions are given as to how the course could be taught to encourage the development of scientific literacy. Finally, a case study of how the In vitro fertilisation (IVF) biotechnology is developed to show a basis for debate and informed decision making by students. Possible approaches are suggested at a practical level, which include content and teaching strategies, to provide teachers with a basis from which to increase the scientific and technological literacy of students."

 
 

"Weiler, A. (1990). A review of the science of education, as proposed by Caleb Gattegno, which offers a way of teaching languages, the silent way, that claims to teach people how to learn. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MA

Dr Caleb Gattegno has proposed a science of education which promises not only to change our views of how to learn languages, but also provides an approach which claims to enable us to learn once again with the aplomb we all had when we were first born. This science evolved from Dr Gattegno's lifetime study of Man. He proposed that it is how energy has evolved over time which has produced the diverse forms of energy, matter and life that constitute the world around us. One of the forms of energy, awareness, has itself evolved over time and is now manifest in the life forms that exist. Moreover the transformation of objectified forms of energy into more evolved forms has been achieved through the presence of awareness. Man, in this context, is the expression of awareness which has become aware of itself. It is through this action, of Man being aware of his/her awareness, that Man has evolved himself/herself and the Man-made world into the form that is visible now. The Silent Way of teaching languages has been developed from these and other understandings. It is claimed that it accomplishes the dual goals of providing an effective way of teaching languages as well as a way of learners recovering their learning prowess, which will allow them to continue their own evolution unfettered by chains which were created by those who did not know better."

 
 

"Werry, R. J. (1990). A cartoon chemistry text: the construction and testing of a novel chemistry text incorporating human values. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This study examines current science texts and the concerns and objectives of Science-Technology-Society based courses. It indicates that they present the public image of the practising scientist (with inherent Mertonian values of Universalism, Communism, Disinterestedness, and organised skepticism) which is used to organise scientific concepts into a meaningful whole. An attempt was made to develop a chemistry text that was meaningful to all students, by organising concepts into a story form with non- Mertonian organisation. This approach evolved into a cartoon format with specific features. Two cartoon text items were tested at two schools. The trial involved a survey item on 103 students and audiotaped interviews with 20 students. The trial attempted to evaluate the cartoon as a student text, attitudes to issues content, and styles of resolving issues based conflicts. The results were interpreted by classifying the respondents into four categories of science likingness (A, B, C, D) on the basis of Year 11 subject choice, and favourite subject. It was assumed that the accommodation of Mertonian values by a group reflected the science likingness of the group. A value mode of cognitive style was developed from the basic hypothesis and assumptions regarding the extent of accommodation of Mertonian and Humanist norms as personal values. This mode seemed to account for variations in meaning generated for the various groups in response to both the standard and cartoon science text format."

 
 

"Williams, C. (1990). The educational provision for children from ethnic minorities who have learning disabilities. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

Post war immigration to Australia has changed the ethnic composition of schools. Variations in minority groups' success in schools has been of concern to educationalists both here in Victoria and in Britain and the USA. In Victoria there is increasing emphasis on the need to cater for individual differences through a service delivery model that promotes access and success for all students. The first part of this study examines definitions of ethnicity and changes in attitude that have led to a more multicultural approach to education. It also examines definitions of learning disabilities in order to understand how difficult it is to determine whether a minority student's difficulties are due to a learning disability and/ or the presence of cultural and language differences. The second part of the study examines the teacher's perspective of both assessing the needs of the minority students who are experiencing difficulties and catering for those needs through the learning environment of the classroom.

 
 

"Wilson, B. V. (1990). Toward a competent society: a critical analysis of H G Wells' conceptions of social change and the education programme he designed to effect that change. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This thesis developed out of initial research on Raymond Williams's conceptions of culture, society and education. Williams argued that a 'long revolution' was evident in human affairs, from which a common culture must emerge. It seemed that in the social and political writings of H G Wells there were many antecedent notions to Williams's ideas. Wells was engaged in promoting a deliberate revolution in human affairs to Williams's idea of a 'long revolution'. It was meant to effect profound social change, resulting in the formation of a global society and thereby rescuing the human species from impending disaster, even extinction. It seemed worthwhile to explore some of these antecedent notions and to examine the claims Wells made for them. This thesis accordingly examines the ideas of H G Wells on social change and the global society, conceived as a World State, and the means by which they were to be achieved, particularly those of revolution and education. It is argued that Wells posited a competent society as the ultimate goal of human endeavour and effective social change, a society distinguished by full control over its destiny and the ability to extend a life of complete satisfaction to all. A critical analysis of Wells' ideas is offered."

 
 

"Wilson, G. M. (1990). German in Victorian secondary schools: differences in provision. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

The following thesis focuses on the provision of German language teaching in the secondary school curriculum. As a supportive comparison considerable attention has also been paid to French language teaching. Both of these subjects have undergone great changes, and a general decline in popularity and importance, during the post war period. It would also appear that both German and French, often recognised as traditional modern language subjects, have been neglected in general pronouncements about LOTE in favour of Asian and community languages. The study reveals that very little consolidated information exists on the availability of language teaching in Victoria. The thesis, therefore, attempts to pool available published and unpublished data on availability, popularity and geographical location of German as a subject in the Victorian secondary school curriculum."

 
 

"Wolf, M. A. (1990). An inquiry into the success of the integration process in Victorian post primary schools. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

This study sets out to examine how teachers with integration responsibility within postprimary schools and the student participants in integration perceive the levels and forms of success of the programs. After reviewing the relevant literature it became clear to the writer that the major barriers to success of integration are organisational and structural in nature and that the perceived level of success of programs appears to be linked to the ways particular schools are structured and administered. A survey of a sample of integration teachers and a sample of their students was conducted to examine whether there was a difference between the success of integration programs in schools that were collaboratively organised compared to those organised in a traditional way. Most Victorian postprimary schools are basically conservative and traditional, but under pressure from many sources there is a shift towards being more flexible, open and collaborative. Integration teachers in all schools were expected by the Ministry of Education to act as agents of change but in general teachers appear to have assumed the role ascribed the remedial teacher. The findings of this study indicate that curriculum changes are taking place at a much faster rate in collaborative schools which place a value on student centred learning. The administration of these schools was found to be active in initiating integration policy and programs, whilst in traditional schools it was the parents who were the significant initiators of integration. The collaborative schools also tended to provide more successful individual programs for their integrated students and obtained a higher allocation of physical and professional resources although both types of schools indicated a high failure rate in the area of needed resources."

WA

 
 

"Klenowski, V. (1990). Planning processes; procedural decisions and student selections in a unit curriculum: a retrospective account. Crawley WA, University of Western Australia."

MEd

"This paper discusses the following: Context for curriculum change; Educational change and curriculum implementation; Reasons for studying implementation; Models of change; Change strategies; Issues and emphases discernable in the contemporary literature; The change process; Top-down versus bottom-up decision making in implementing change; Instruments and frameworks; Factors that influence implementation; The role of the external consultant; and Unit curriculum in context with the literature.

 
 

"Lewis, P. H. (1990). Strategies used by two experienced teachers of science in the preparation and presentation of lessons for senior science classes. Bentley WA, Curtin University of Technology."

MAppSc

"The present research involves an interpretive examination of the way in which two experienced teachers of science use their subject matter knowledge in the classroom, the planning or preactive strategies used for classroom presentations, the nature of the examples used to illustrate aspects of subject matter during the interactive phase of teaching, and the reaction of students to these issues. Utilising an interpretive methodology, the classroom practice of the two teachers was observed and these teachers were then interviewed about various aspects of planning and presentation. The students who were present in both classes were also interviewed in order to expand the source of data for the study. The findings of this research are presented at six assertions which address specific aspects of the research questions. In the preactive or planning phases it is asserted that experienced teachers of science reject formal or structured planning in favour of a more globally oriented planning strategy. This strategy is informed by previous episodes and experiences both within and outside of the classroom. Further claims are made about the subject matter knowledge, representational repertoires and reinforcement strategies of experienced science teachers during the interactive teaching phase. These claims strengthen the overall proposal that these teachers utilise a detailed and diverse comprehension of their subject through a favoured teaching style or repertoire. Evidence for the use of alternative repertoires, and particular example schema is presented. It is also asserted that senior science students have particular preferences for the repertoires and strategies used in class, but may experience cognitive discomfort when they are unable to negotiate the academic demands of the classroom."

 
 

"Needham, W. J. (1990). An evaluation of the implementation of the New South Wales Aboriginal education policy by secondary school teachers of science. Bentley WA, Curtin University of Technology."

MAppSc

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of the Aboriginal Education policy in NSW secondary science classes. The study was designed to determine the extent of science teachers' understanding of traditional and contemporary Aboriginal culture, as well as to ascertain the extent of their interest in and awareness of Aboriginality, and their degree of implementation of the NSW Aboriginal Education policy. The major component of the study was a postal survey designed to investigate the extent to which a sample of 170 science teachers in NSW government secondary schools: understand aspects of traditional and contemporary Aboriginal culture; comprehend contemporary Aboriginal issues; and have implemented the Aboriginal Education policy in their classes. The study also investigates the extent of their general interest in Aboriginal culture and issues. The survey results indicate that many teachers do not understand significant aspects of both traditional and contemporary Aboriginal culture, and have not successfully implemented the Aboriginal Education policy. However, the study reveals that these teachers do regard Aboriginal perspectives in science as being appropriate."

 
 

"Ruthven, E. B. (1990). The status of mathematical proof: implications for mathematics curricula. Crawley WA, University of Western Australia."

MEd

This study is an attempt to clarify the nature of mathematical proof and brings into question many of the fundamental beliefs that we hold with regard to mathematical proofs. This study by necessity is a discussion of the philosophy of mathematics since the notion of proof is closely tied to our fundamental concepts in mathematics. Throughout this study there is an underlying criticism of the Formalist approach to mathematics, and more specifically, a criticism of the 'New Maths' introduced worldwide in the 1960's. The introduction of the New Maths saw a much greater emphasis on rigour in secondary mathematics, in algebra and trigonometry as well as the traditional geometry. This stress on rigour came about because it was believed that rigorous proof was the most important characteristics of modern mathematics. This study accepts the point that the secondary school curriculum should reflect modern mathematical theory and practice but rejects the notion that this is best achieved through a strict rigorous approach."

 
 

"Stokes, H. M. (1990). Bridging courses for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students: a course evaluation. Crawley WA, University of Western Australia."

MEd

This research is an exploratory study on the effectiveness of a bridging course in preparing Aboriginal students for further education. It also considers factors which may be of concern to the students' study in higher education. The research design employed in this study is both historical and evaluative. The historical section of the study provides background on the development and expansion of bridging courses in Australia and focuses on the development of these courses at the Western Australian College of Advanced Education (WACAE). The evaluative section is that which examines the on-campus bridging course at the College and the effectiveness of this course in preparing students for higher education. In order that factors which may affect Aboriginal students in higher education, particularly at the tertiary level can be considered, an examination is made on the social and academic factors that students consider are of concern to their studies. Two survey instruments, a questionnaire and an interview are employed in this study. The questionnaire survey was presented to the sample of thirty two students who had enrolled in the course at WACAE in one of the intakes between 1985-1987. The findings from the analysis of the questionnaire and particularly the interview indicate various areas of concern for the students in relation to the course and the factors of concern to their studies."

 
 

"Watt, M. W. (1990). Maintaining the difference: the Disadvantaged Schools Program and its implementation in a Western Australian high school. Murdoch WA, Murdoch University."

PhD

This thesis is about the Disadvantaged Schools Program of the Schools Commission. It operates on two levels: the general rationale and objectives of the program; and a case study of its implementation in a Western Australian high school. The program was set up primarily as an attempt to improve the schooling, and hence the life chances, of disadvantaged children. The research was undertaken on the assumption that the most obvious connection between schooling and life chances in Australian society concerns the gaining of educational credentials needed for access to jobs and further education. Therefore improving the life chances of disadvantaged children through schooling must amount primarily to helping them gain those credentials. The central question addressed in this research is whether the DSP as implemented in that school achieved this goal. The central conclusion is that the program activities over the period did not lead to improved scholastic attainment, and, further, that they were not designed to do so. Two related explanations are offered for this. The first is a lack of clear directions in the guidelines provided by the Schools Commission. The second concerns the freedom given to the staff, under the Commission's implementation policy, to determine the direction of the school's goals. The staff were found to have used this freedom to modify the school's curriculum in ways that tended to reduce students' opportunities to gain educational credentials. This was related to generally held beliefs about the students' limited capacity to gain those credentials."

1995

ACT

 
 

"Butler, E. (1995). Curriculum work: post modern positions and problematics: a personal perspective. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

"This thesis presents an interrogation of curriculum practices and positionings, over time, of a feminist educator and curriculum worker seeking to centre gender and subjugated knowledges in a curriculum framework with the potential for transformative outcomes. The thesis, presented as a critical narrative, interweaves theories and theoretical ideas from four key areas: post modernism and post structuralism; feminism/s; education and curriculum, and critical social sciences, including critical theory. Interpretative feminist praxis is employed as the methodological approach. Central to the investigation is a curriculum project undertaken in Papua New Guinea (the Goroka Curriculum Project). Curriculum models and practices associated with the work of traditional empiricist approaches found to be dominant in Papua New Guinea, reify western intellectual endeavours to the disadvantage of indigenous and women's knowledges and knowledge practices. This naturalisation is framed as an example of a meta narrative in education, whereby the discursive practices associated with traditional/rational curriculum models both colonise the endeavours of curriculum workers, and position learners as colonised subjects. A central outcome of the traditional/rational model is the inherent positioning of such individuals and groups as marginalised, devalued other. Such curriculum work is framed as a technology of governance, privileging attempts to establish order and homogeneity in an increasingly disorderly and fragmented world. The investigation by the curriculum writer of her theory/practice leads to recognition of oppositional work as a site of power, that also has the potential to 'oppress', extending the colonial project. Following this, the thesis investigates transformative curriculum work as problematic potentiality, questioning what the work of a feminist curriculum writer in a post modem world is to do and to be. While acknowledging there are no innocent discourses of liberation, the potential of the 'courage to know', to attend to pedagogical ethics and ethics of self, and acknowledge the messy, contradictory and deeply political work of curriculum design are posited. An emergent notion of curriculum work as textual practice, within a multi-dimensional framework that conceptualises curriculum as representation is advanced."

 
 

"Campbell, J. (1995). The organisation and structure of elite junior sport in the ACT. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

"Since the acceptance of the Australian Capital Territory Secondary Schools Sports Association (ACTSSSA) into the Australian School Sports Council (ASSC) as a full member in 1977, there has been tremendous growth in representative sport at the youth level. This rapid growth in the provision of elite sport opportunity in the school sector has been matched by a similar growth in both representative and skill development programs within the community junior sports associations. The relatively small talent pool that the Australian Capital Territory junior sporting communities are able to draw from creates a potential problem with funding, multiple representation and duplication in organisation. The research highlights the high costs involved in representative sport and provides a detailed analysis of the participant input into this cost structure. The thesis outlines research of the organisational structure of both the school and community junior sporting associations within the Australian Capital Territory. The structure within the schools sector has been found to be both complex and costly. The nexus between the three key school organisations, the Australian Capital Territory Secondary Schools Sports Association, the Australian School Sports Council and the Australian Capital Territory School Sports Council is not clear either in constitution or practice. The organisation of elite junior programs within the Australian Capital Territory community sporting associations is dependent upon the strength of the individual associations and their ability to obtain funding from parent or government agencies. There is clear evidence that communication between all vested interest groups involved in the provision of opportunity for elite junior athletes is limited and in many instances is not evident. There is a demonstrated need for the establishment of a central controlling body to represent all junior sporting associations within the Australian Capital Territory, including both the school and community sectors."

 
 

"Coutts Smith, R. J. (1995). Mathematics in transition: the post-compulsory years. (The transition from high school to college in the Australian Capital Territory). Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

"This study commences with the assumption that action can be taken to lessen the disruption to the mathematical progress of Year 11 students in the Australian Capital Territory senior secondary colleges. If students are to perform their best in mathematics they need their transition from high school to college to be as smooth as possible. Nevertheless, many students change their mathematics enrolment soon after commencing college. The study relies particularly upon the theory of reasoned action to determine whether students have the intention both before and during the transition of performing well in mathematics at college. Although this measure provides a predictor of the intention, it does not necessarily follow that the conditions allow the student to comply with the prediction. Statistical instruments were also used to determine whether students initially enrol in appropriate courses and whether they perform as well in their first semester at college as in Year 10. A small sample of students was interviewed to elicit whether there was supporting evidence for some conclusions drawn from the results and the literature survey. Analyses of the predictor of intention indicate that during the transition period a very high proportion of students intends to perform well in mathematics at college. Analysis of the components of the measure pinpoints some small differences between high schools .The statistical analyses show that a significant proportion of students completes semester 1 in mathematics courses other than those of initial enrolment and that performance by the Year 11 students correlates well with Year 10 performance. Discussion centres around actions of intervention and their focus. Parents and guardians are possible recipients of further information since the evidence suggests they are the most influential advisers in the lives of this age group. College teachers are possibly the best current providers of that information, although, high school teachers and careers advisers could take a more prominent role following appropriate training. Recommendations are made concerning the enrolment procedure and the beginning of Year 11 routine. Other conclusions and recommendations concern action by classroom teachers that could ensure more students succeed in the course of initial enrolment, whether they are in the course most suited to their previous performance or are attempting a more difficult course."

 
 

"Hewitt, I. A. (1995). An exploratory study into: teachers' inclusion of the Christian perspective in the classroom. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

"Trinity Christian School is a Christian parent controlled school which was established in 1980 with eleven students and one teacher. The current enrolment of the school is some 640 students. In 1991 the Trinity Christian School Vision Statement was written. This Vision Statement gives an outline of the direction Trinity Christian School should be heading. It also gives a brief outline of the purpose for the schools existence. At the present time Trinity Christian School is beginning to expand into a school of some 780 students and is also undergoing a process of whole school review. It is therefore a significant time in which to study how the Trinity Christian School Vision Statement is being implemented within the school, particularly, within the secondary section of the school. The focus of this study is to observe what if any, a selection of secondary teachers at Trinity Christian School are including in the classroom which would reflect the Trinity Christian School Vision Statement. In particular, to look for the inclusion of a Christian perspective as is defined in the 'vision statement'. To undertake this study a naturalistic inquiry methodology was selected in which a range of field study techniques were adopted, especially from the field of ethnography. A range of data was collected from the following sources: curriculum statements; the Christian perspectives outline; teaching programs; lesson observations; teacher interviews; student interviews; student workbooks; and teaching resources. From the data collected for this study there is much evidence to demonstrate the teachers' inclusion of the Christian perspective in the classroom at Trinity Christian School. The manner in which this is included varies between cases, much as the teaching style of each individual teacher varies. How the Christian perspective is included also varies according to the subject and the unit being taught. A key implication for Trinity Christian School, is that the consistency of the documentation could be improved. If this was done, then a greater inclusion of the Christian perspective in the classroom could be provided to challenge the students more than at present. This could be achieved if the Christian perspective were incorporated in many more aspects of the classroom than was observed in this study. In this way the students would have modelled to them the Christian way to live in many more of the situation which arise in the classroom."

 
 

"Joliffe, E. K. (1995). Developing a multiple discourse model of analysis through an evaluation of the national Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education policy. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

PhD

"The research problem for this study was the need to improve upon rational models of policy analysis and delivery, to suit complex postmodern implementation environments. A theoretical model suited to implementing and evaluating major education reform initiatives was devised. Called the 'multiple discourse model', it was grounded in systems theory, containing elements reminiscent of social systems, organisational and structural functionalist research. Over a period of five years, this model was developed through an evaluation of the implementation of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Policy (AEP) in the Australian Capital Territory government secondary schools sector. It was found that this model produced clear conclusions about the effectiveness of AEP implementation in the delimited sector, within the framework of the A EP's own policy assumptions. The model also provided insights into critical issues which are generalisable to the national context, such as the power of cultural hegemony and the socio- political predicament of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander dispossession. As a methodology, the model was found to have a number of technical advantages, including its capacity for focussing on selected areas of the implementation environment, its provision of access to multiple levels of detail amongst data and its possession of mechanisms for monitoring its own internal validity. The evaluation case study, used as the vehicle for the multiple discourse model's development, demonstrated that best practice administration was in place which enhanced short and medium- term policy/program outcomes. However, the study's findings also suggested that a fundamental disjuncture existed between the AEP's policy/administration paradigm and the conflicting assumptions of the primary target communities. The research results suggested that despite measurable successful inputs, the planned long-term outcomes of the AEP will not necessarily be achieved. No significant administrative structures or actions were apparent which could resolve this lack of synchrony at the interface between government delivery systems and 'grass roots' Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community values. A new policy paradigm is suggested, based on a power- sharing 'theory of community', more in keeping with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' aspirations for self determination and more likely to alleviate the so far unresolved destructive effects of cultural and political dispossession."

 
 

"Mauragis, R. E. (1995). Arts education access in high school scheduling. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

"The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of curriculum policy regarding eight key learning areas in Australian Capital Territory government high schools with particular analysis concerning the arts. The study sought to identify the discrepancy between school curriculum policy and timetable allocation to the mandated curriculum areas. Analysis of time allocation to learning areas as defined by the timetable allocation of time was considered to be an appropriate method of examining curriculum practice in Australian Capital Territory government high schools. Fifteen Australian Capital Territory government high school timetables were analysed in conjunction with school curriculum documentation. Mandatory time requirements for the eight key learning areas was identified. Timetable structures were analysed in terms of allocation of time to key learning areas, pastoral care, assemblies, activities and electives. Formulae were developed in order to make comparisons between schools possible. Results indicated that disparities existed between time allocation to key learning areas within key learning areas and mandatory time (ie minimum guaranteed access time) requirements for key learning areas."

 
 

"Powell, R. M. (1995). Drama as a technique that can be used in environmental interpretation and education. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEnvEd

"This work endorses the need for environmental interpretation and education because of the threat to the natural environment as a result of the lack of understanding and knowledge of environmental issues. The writer's personal perspective on the environment is described. There is a strong advocacy for the use of the fine arts in interpretative programmes as a way of reaching audiences, and particularly those individuals who learn through an abstract/ symbolic modality. The use of drama is explored as one of the fine arts media through which all visitors to natural sites can gain information, experience personal growth, and develop an understanding of their relationship to the natural world. A study was conducted in which a questionnaire, (which posed 36 questions related to common practices and experiences, and the use of drama as a medium in environmental interpretation and education), was used in interviewing representatives of 18 organisations, (9 in Canada and 9 in Australia), involved in environmental education. The responses to the questionnaire are summarised and discussed. Of those interviewed, most of the Australian and Canadian respondents were aware of the need to use a variety of techniques when developing programmes, had used drama in their programmes, had all attended programmes where drama was used as the interpretative medium, and were positive about their experiences. More than two thirds of the respondents from Australia and Canada indicated that drama should be given a high priority in environmental interpretation and education in the future. Information on two children's ecodrama programmes and two workshops for adults on the use of drama in environmental interpretation and education is also included."

 
 

"Rooney, B. A. (1995). The teaching of science in a primary school: a case study. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

"The 'Discipline Review of Teacher Education in Mathematics and Science' (Department of Employment, Education and Training, 1989) concludes that science in primary schools is in a state of crisis. This finding is not new as there have been concerns about primary school science for many years. It is likely that one of the reasons why the problem remains could relate to the attitudes and beliefs that teachers hold about the subject and its importance in the primary school curriculum. Another reason put forward relates to the limited background experiences in science of many primary school teachers. In particular, their knowledge of content matter and strategies for teaching the subject is limited. As a consequence, many primary teachers do not feel confident to teach science so they avoid it or teach only units with which they are familiar. This leads to inconsistent science teaching and an ineffective science curriculum in many primary schools. The thesis investigates the factors that influence the teaching of science in a primary school through a case study. Teachers' attitudes to, and beliefs about, the subject are explored in relation to their background experiences, teacher education and knowledge of science. How these factors influence their classroom teaching is explored through the context of the physical environment and culture of the school, the culture of teaching and the instructional leadership of the principal. The case study is based on information obtained from teacher surveys and interviews, journal entries and school documents. A typology which helps clarify factors influencing the teaching of science is developed. It provides insight into the problems of teaching the subject and how they may be addressed. A case study of the principal adds to the typology by providing the principal's perspective of science in the school. It is likely that the school featured in the case study is representative of many primary schools. The findings and recommendations may therefore have wider implications and may contribute to more effective teaching of science in many primary schools."

 
 

"Taylor, R. (1995). Moral education: a critique of stage development theory and the philosophy for children programme as a moral education alternative. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

"This thesis considers aspects of Piaget's and Kohlberg's theories of the moral development and education of children. It takes into consideration an old but valuable study of the development of character in children. As a possible alternative model to that provided by Kohlberg, the inclusion of the Philosophy for Children program into schools is suggested. Prior to the elaboration of this proposition certain philosophical concepts put forward by both Piaget and Kohlberg are critically analysed. The aim here has been to suggest that there are underlying philosophical weaknesses which have a hidden but important impact on the acceptability of aspects of their work. Concern is expressed at the acceptance of Kohlberg's work in schools and it is pointed out why this is unsatisfactory. What is taken to be an acceptable position in introducing moral education into schools is put forward and an approach where this can take place within the context of a broader educational program and which includes the Philosophy for Children program is also proposed."

 
 

"Thompson, P. (1995). The development of an evaluation model for work experience programs at CIT. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

"The provision of work experience opportunities for students at the Canberra Institute of Technology (CIT) is an important feature in promoting the practical application of theory learned in the classroom. At the outset of this study, the variety and scope of work experience programs at CIT was not known and there were no apparent efforts to co- ordinate this activity. The effectiveness of these programs was not known, and there were no strategies in place to measure their worth. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe work experience programs, to analyse existing evaluation methods and to propose a model of evaluation appropriate to the maximum number of programs. The review of related literature resulted in the selection of Stake's comprehensive countenance model, chosen for its consideration of the complexities of purpose and the wide variety of experiences which students may encounter. A significant part of the application of Stake's Model was the development of an Evaluation Kit for Work Experience Co-ordinators at CIT and the subsequent trial on the Work Placement subject of the Certificate in Travel course in the School of Tourism and Hospitality. Stake's countenance model of evaluation appears to embody an appropriate structure to measure the worth of programs. Recommendations for future directions include the wider trial of the kit in a greater number of programs to further establish its usefulness to decision makers, and the need to remain alert to emerging issues and trends in work experience practice in Australia."

 
 

"Williamson, J. (1995). Teachers and the use of computers in four ACT non-government primary schools. Belconnen ACT, University of Canberra."

MEd

"The case studies carried out in four nongovernment primary schools in the Australian Capital Territory aimed to look at the way teachers were using computers in classrooms in order to shed light on the factors which may determine how teachers chose to use computers to enhance learning. The case study method allowed the researcher to use triangulation to provide in depth information about the processes involved in the delivery of a lesson using a computer. The findings were positive in that more then half of the teachers were found to be using computers at a high level of adoption, predominantly running simulation programs. In most schools, this was in spite of either hardware or software constraints, inadequate professional development opportunities or administrative obstacles. Whether the teachers taught in a laboratory or had one computer in the classroom did not seem to retard their enthusiasm for finding the best strategies to effectively integrate computer use. Cooperative learning strategies had been adopted by most of the teachers so their transition to computer use was made easier since their students had already been ' routinised'. The data also pointed to formal computer education as a possible determinant of a high level computer user. However, research on a wider scale would be needed to validate the result. Differences in the way classes were managed in a one computer classroom and a laboratory were evident. Teachers spent most time with those students working away form the computer in the one computer classroom and most time with those working at the computer in the laboratory setting. Methods of evaluation were shown to be necessarily different depending on whether work was carried out in a laboratory or a one computer classroom. Finally, the study pointed to the need for nongovernment schools and system managers to begin long term planning for hardware and software purchase and resource management in order to provide teachers with the tools needed to integrate computer use effectively. Such planning would need to include provision for professional development."

 

NSW

 
 

"Arnold, S. (1995). Learning to use new tools: a study of mathematical software use for the learning of algebra. Kensington NSW, University of New South Wales."

PhD

"This study documents the efforts of a teacher/researcher to learn to use computer algebra software applications as pedagogical tools through systematic self-study, clinical observations of secondary students and collaboration with groups of preservice teachers. The study also involved the ongoing development of a computer-based learning environment which accompanied the research process and served to embody the main results. Complementing action research methods with grounded theory analysis, the study describes and explains the ways in which individuals (six secondary students and two groups of six preservice teachers) used available software tools for algebra learning. The subsequent grounded theory situates tool use within contexts of mathematical and pedagogical thinking on the part of the user. Effective use of available software tools was also found to be conditional upon characteristics of both the software and the learning environment. Analysis of pedagogical beliefs of both students and preservice teachers revealed a consistent culture of mathematics learning which devalued external support factors and exploration in favour of repetitive individual skill development within teacher- dominated instructional sequences. Detailed analysis of students' algebraic imagery revealed that, while some algebraic forms served a strong and consistent signal function in eliciting meaning and action strategies, others ( including simple expressions and tables of values) were associated with unclear signals, frustrating students' abilities to act appropriately in both traditional and computer-based learning situations. These factors acted as impediments to the effective use of mathematical software tools. At the same time, strategic use of appropriate mathematical software (defined as goal-directed, flexible and insightful) supported the development of algebraic skills and understandings in students. Such use was associated for the students with increased manipulative and representational repertoires and increased confidence in their results. The graphical representation was most favoured by all participants, although it was commonly associated with superficial and automatic use. The table of values, while recognised as effective for detailed comparison of functions, was more difficult to interpret and less favoured. Computer algebra tools were found to be most effective in supporting mathematical investigation and the explicit development of extended algebraic processes, such as equation solving"

 
 

"Best, C. (1995). 'Educating the boys': a social skills program for Year 8 students in a comprehensive coeducational secondary school. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

MEd(Hons)

"This investigation arose out of a concern by a group of teachers about the perceived lack of social skills being displayed by boys. The school involved in this study has more boys than girls in the student population and it was felt by teachers that this imbalance exacerbated the problem of anti social behaviour. As part of action taken to address the issue of student welfare and discipline, a social skills program was developed and implemented by counsellors from an organisation outside the school. This program was targeted to students from Year 8 (both boys and girls) and focused on the issues of self image, conflict resolution and response to authority. This study used the methodology of action research to evaluate the implementation of the social skills program and make recommendations for future action. The students' response to this program was very positive and highlighted a number of issues in relation to their experience of school life and their attitudes and feelings about themselves and others. In general, there was evidence to support the assumption that stereotypes are operational within the school context that support anti social behaviour by boys. Both boys and girls valued the opportunity to discuss their experiences of school in a different forum from their usual experience and many students commented that learning about the points of view of their peers was very positive. Education has an important role to play in countering gender stereotypes and initiating strategies to promote gender equity and social justice. To be effective, these strategies must recognise the dangers of generalising about genders and acknowledge that there are more similarities between gender groups than there are differences."

 
 

"Brien, D. P. (1995). The teaching and learning processes involved in primary school children' s research projects. Kensington NSW, University of New South Wales."

DEd

"The educational practice of primary school students carrying out research projects has been well entrenched in Australia and overseas for more than forty years, however there is a paucity of empirical studies into what students actually learn from doing projects. Over the past decade some educators have highlighted the problems and possibilities in the use of this instructional method and its demands on the child learner. This thesis is based on the premise that research project work is a complex problem solving task which imposes a heavy cognitive load. Teachers need to structure the teaching/learning task taking into account the nature of learning and the learner to achieve desired learning outcomes by students. Cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1988; 1989; 1993) suggests that many conventional methods of instruction are not effective because they deploy cognitive resources away from activities relevant to learning imposing a heavy extraneous cognitive load. The conventional project method, it is suggested, is one such method of ineffective instruction. The cognitive load needs to be reduced to enable the child researcher to successfully complete the task. A structured approach is suggested as a means of reducing cognitive load. This thesis reports the findings of two experiments designed to investigate the learning effectiveness of primary school children's research projects when using a structured as opposed to an unstructured approach. The projects were carried out with children in two Year 3 and two Year 6 classes. The results indicated that there was a significant learning advantage for students doing research projects through a structured rather than an unstructured approach. In light of these results and previous findings, it is suggested that the skills involved in solving complex problems during research, ie. in seeking, processing, critically evaluating and communicating information from source materials, need to be identified and taught to students directly and within the context of project work, if students are to learn effectively when carrying out research projects in primary schools. Suggestions are also made for future research."

 
 

"Cauchi, R. P. (1995). An investigation into the understanding of the basic concepts of analytical geometry. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"This study investigated senior secondary students' level of understanding of the basic concepts of analytical geometry, identified as; plotting and reading coordinates; midpoint; distance; and gradient. Through the investigation, four research themes and questions were developed to answer the main research question. The first research theme was concerned with senior school students' level of understanding of the basic concepts of analytical geometry, since these students have had additional exposure to the basic concepts. The second research theme related to the format of the research instrument and whether this had any effect on the level of understanding of the basic concepts by senior secondary students. The third research theme investigated the different strategies students used to solve basic concepts of analytical geometry problems, in particular, their misconceptions and explanations for strategies used. The fourth theme relates to why the mathematically less able students experienced difficulty with the basic concept of plotting and reading coordinates. The conclusion answers and addresses the four research themes and questions and establishes the level of understanding of the basic concepts of analytical geometry by these students. Finally, consideration is given to some of the implications of the results for further research in this area of study."

 
 

"Cusworth, R. A. (1995). The framing of educational knowledge through newstime in junior primary classrooms. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

PhD

"Although news or sharing time is a regular curriculum activity in many Australian K-2 classrooms, it has remained an undertheorised and often 'ad hoc' component. Educational writers and researchers have suggested that newstime provides children with an interface between home and school while facilitating opportunities for oral narrative as a precursor to literacy development. Research in Australian classrooms to date has characterised newstime as a curriculum 'genre' or a staged, purposeful context for learning but has neither investigated teacher purposes in programming newstime, nor its impact on children and their learning. The current study of newstime was articulated in three interrelated developmental phases aiming to develop a rich and layered description of this fragment of the curriculum. These were: three case studies in kindergarten classrooms in Sydney; a statewide survey of newstime practices and purposes amongst K- 2 teachers; and an ethnographic study in a kindergarten classroom in which newstime practice was examined from teacher, student and parent perspectives. Findings from all three phases of the research suggested tensions between the pedagogical purposes of newstime cited by the literature, teacher intentions in programming newstime and the actuality as it occurred in classrooms. Technical routines and rituals were found to be inhibiting interactive, child centred discussions in some classrooms. Findings also demonstrated that, rather than describing newstime as one particular kind of curriculum genre, a range of different learning contexts were being constructed. Further, if oral narrative is important in the development of literacy, it was not seen by K-2 teachers as an important reason for programming newstime nor was this purpose recognised by the children and parents interviewed in phase three of the study. Using newstime as an exemplar demonstrates how the construction of taken for granted elements of the curriculum may provide valuable insights into the explicit and implicit lessons children are learning about school knowledge from the very beginning of their formal education. Further research needs to explore the construction of curriculum from all participants' perspectives."

 
 

"Darling, M. D. (1995). An investigation of the appropriate and effective use of concrete materials or manipulatives to enhance mathematical understandings and skills in fractions and time for middle primary children with learning difficulties in the regular classroom. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd(Hons)

"This dissertation consists of an investigation of the theoretical perspectives, research findings, teaching materials and practices relating to the development of mathematical understandings and skills in time and fractions for junior primary children, specifically Year 3, with learning difficulties who remain in the regular classroom situation. As a result of this investigation an attempt was made to design improved concrete materials or manipulatives for use in the teaching of time and fractions and to devise recommendations for their appropriate use. The practical outcome achieved with these materials in one Year 3 class is also reported."

 
 

"Davies, M. M. (1995). The outdoor curriculum in early childhood education: interrelationships among teachers, environments and children. Callaghan NSW, University of Newcastle."

PhD

"In early children education, play in the outdoor environment is considered important for all aspects of children's development. Three important elements in the curriculum process, identified from the early childhood literature, were selected for investigation in the thesis. These elements are the curriculum thinking and practices of teachers, the physical environments planned for children's play, and the children themselves. A series of studies was planned to examine the impact on the curriculum process of these elements separately, as well as their interrelationships. Firstly, a survey was conducted in 22 preschools to investigate provisions made by teachers for children outdoors. The results of this study confirmed the important role of the physical environment in the early childhood curriculum process, and highlighted some variations in preschool teachers' curriculum conceptions, and the diversity in their curriculum practices outdoors. Generally, teachers' provisions, and their expressed aims for children's experiences outdoors were not extensive. A more detailed study was then conducted in eight preschools. In the first part, teachers again were interviewed to explore, in greater depth, their conceptions of the outdoor curriculum. Results revealed that the variability in teachers' curriculum thinking evident from the first study reflected their personal understandings of developmental theory, their practical knowledge of children and teaching, and particular situational factors. Results also indicated the ways in which teachers' beliefs and theories about children's development and learning, and about the role of the adult in these processes, influenced the ways in which they plan the outdoor learning environment, and the expectations they have of children's, and teachers' behaviours in these settings. The second part of the investigation of the eight preschools examined the impact of teachers' curriculum approaches on children. It consisted of an observational study of the outdoor behaviour of 80 four year old children, with 10 children selected from each of the eight preschools. The results demonstrated that children experience considerable freedom in their outdoor play, and have relatively little contact with teachers. Outdoor settings support a diverse range of behaviours, although children's predominant activities were gross motor, pretend and manipulation. These activities occurred mainly in pairs and small groups, and involved similar high levels of parallel and cooperative play, as well as considerable verbal communication. Sandpits, open spaces, and fixed climbing structures were popular play locations, although children's preferences for these locations were related to the overall design of the playspace, as well as to individual child characteristics. Similarly, patterns of children's behaviour were related to specific features of the environment, as well as to children's gender. Together, the results of these studies demonstrated ways in which teachers, environments, and children, both separately and conjointly, influence the outdoor curriculum process. Results are discussed in terms of implications for the early childhood curriculum and for future research."

 
 

"Hall, L. T. (1995). Child cognitive development in an individual or social context? An analysis of the theories of the Troica and Piaget and the implications for education in a changing society. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

PhD

"This thesis examines two major theories of child development. These are the social-interactive account of children's cognitive growth of the Troica (Vygotsky, Luria and Leont'ev) and Piaget's approach which evolved from an individualistic to a more social-interactive approach. A synthesis of these ideas is used as a nucleus for suggestions for child education relevant to the predicted post-industrial, and subsequent post-service, economy. For the Troica, human development differed from that of animals because of mediation through language. Language enabled people to establish connections between stimulus and response and so transform sensations into thought. Language is the principal social activity leading to the development of both culture and child. The view that language gave humans a 'tool' for communication and regulation of behaviour was basic to their social- interactive approach to cognitive growth. Piaget's early biological studies laid the foundation of his concept of stages in child development, based on intellectual and physical adaptation to the environment. His constructivist hypothesis was more individualistic than the activity concept of the Troica; the roles of language and contact with adults in children's development being minimised before about 1960. There is a distinct change in Piaget indicating an awareness of the social nature of children's living and its implications for their cognitive growth. Among Piagetians, the later views of both Case and Halford also indicate a growing acceptance of a social-interactive concept of developing cognition. Four major themes emerge from the findings of both the Troica and Piaget. These are language, adult-child contact, egocentricity and activity. The efficacy of a number of research issues in investigating these themes is examined. The contributions of other scholars both Soviet and Western in this field are also considered. Several Western writers have expressed their concern about the psychological, social and educational implications of the ongoing technological revolution. In this thesis the view is taken that consideration of the findings of earlier researchers, substantiated by current research into the nature of children's cognition is essential in devising a form of education pertinent to the future. Three major findings arise from this study: Although there are considerable differences in the accounts of children's cognitive growth hypothesised by the Troica and Piaget, a synthesis of many of their ideas and their relevance to current educational practice is evident; The importance of social interaction in cognitive development, which was crucial to the view of the Troica, is becoming more widely acknowledged by research scholars; Because the Troica worked together as a unit, the holistic nature of their findings is distorted by the tendency of scholars to consider Vygotsky's work in isolation. This approach ignores the important contributions which Luria and Leont'ev made to the group's efforts in devising a new psychology based on social interaction which incorporated the socio- historical development of both society and its members."

 
 

"Harvey, P. (1995). History teachers' implementation of skills based objectives in the context of the New South Wales two unit senior modern history syllabus: a study of the Sydney Metropolitan Western Region. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt(Hons)

"This study reports teachers' implementation of skills objectives in the New South Wales two unit modern history syllabus, comparing the aims and philosophy of the syllabus writers (intention) with teachers' practice (reality). Research into intention is informed by interviews with syllabus committee members and analysis of the syllabus document. Investigation of classroom practice is based upon a questionnaire completed by 21 teachers in the metropolitan western area of Sydney, from a total of 18 schools, and upon a classroom project undertaken by the author in one school. A mismatch between intention and reality was evident in three areas of the curriculum: in teachers' ranking of objectives; in their selection of learning experiences and in their evaluation of students. Of these three areas, it was teachers' selection of learning experiences that was found to be most inconsistent with the intentions of the syllabus. Student centred activities utilising a wide range of skills were used with the lowest frequency, while teacher centred activities requiring a narrow range of skills were used most often. However, the teachers claimed that skills objectives were of considerable importance and utility in their day to day teaching. This claim indicates a problem of 'false clarity', wherein teachers are convinced they are implementing a curriculum innovation while their practices suggest otherwise (Fullan, 1981: 197). The mismatch between intention and reality encountered in the study suggests that the implementation of skills objectives in a senior history curriculum may be more problematic than originally envisaged by the syllabus writers. Causes for the lack of congruence are suggested. These causes included the inherent difficulty of applying specific objectives in the discipline of history, complexity and lack of clarity in the syllabus document, the abundance of historical content to be covered in the syllabus, and teachers' focus upon preparation for the final examination. These factors have been identified in previous implementation studies as constraints upon fidelity of implementation and curriculum innovation."

 
 

"McGee, P. J. (1995). Corporatism and education: a case study of the impact of the restructuring movement on a small rural high school in New South Wales. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEdAd(Hon)

"This thesis is a case study of the impact of the restructuring movement on a small isolated high school in North Western New South Wales. The significant changes, centralisation of the curriculum, decentralisation of distance education, devolution of professional development and financial management and staffing policy changes, brought about by government policy since 1988 are described and analysed. The case study begins with an examination of restructuring at the system level in order to place restructuring at the local school level in a broader restructuring context. Elements of restructuring that provide particular foci are: the impact of restructuring upon the autonomy of the school in the areas of management, management processes, curriculum delivery and development and the achievement of the school's educational mission. The impact of restructuring is considered in relation to the school's educational practice and the role of conflict and conflict management is related to the changing perceptions of the educational stakeholders within the whole school community. In order to give the case study a unified focus the restructuring has been related to a theoretical framework derived from the research of Futrell (1989), Wirt (1991), Mitchell (1991) and Guthrie and Pierce ( 1990). This theoretical framework is inclusive of economic and political theories and explanations and an evolutionary action reaction cycle of waves of reform proposed by Futrell (1989). The study concludes that there have been some welcome and desirable changes at the school level as a result of restructuring, including devolution of the control of finance and staff development and the strategic planning requirement from which many unintended innovations have flowed. There have also been less welcome changes which have included the diffusion of the educational leadership role as a result of the transformation of the school principal into a middle manager, the initial abandonment of the centralised staffing system and continuing uncertainties of schemes to replace it and the progressive centralisation of the curriculum."

 
 

"McKinnon, D. H. (1995). Computers, experiential learning and subject integration in the secondary school: a longitudinal case study of students' attitude, motivation and performance. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

PhD

"This thesis: examines the relationship between the mode of production, social formation, technology and education in general ways; examines the structure and delivery of education that was developed in industrial society and proposes structural changes to the three educational message systems of curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation; and, discusses the contributions that curriculum integration, experiential learning and computer technology can make to these restructured message systems. If these changes are to be implemented in the educational offerings of post-industrial societies then there is a need for sound evaluation of the contributions that they can make to the education of young people. Results are presented of a five- year longitudinal case study of a school-based curriculum research and development project, the Freyberg Integrated Studies Project, in New Zealand. Within the Project, teachers, school administrators and educational researchers, working together, developed and field tested an integrated approach to secondary education new to that country. The project developed programmes which incorporated three curriculum design elements: educational out-of- class activities, student use of the computer as an information processing and analysis tool, and integrated approaches to teaching and learning. Results indicate that students in the integrated studies programme had more positive attitudes towards the three curriculum design elements of the project than their peers in the more traditional subject-centred programme. In addition, the integrated studies students were significantly less academically alienated and performed significantly better in the New Zealand External School Certificate examinations. Qualitative data show that these students expressed comments which indicated that they were significantly more optimistic, enjoyed school more and conveyed feelings of empowerment compared with their peers in the traditional school programme. The increasing impact of the project on students' attitudes mirrored increasing teacher expertise in using the three design elements. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the impact of the project on the students, teachers and the school/community, and discusses the implications for practice and further research in light of the developmental nature of innovation adoption and implementation processes."

 
 

"Morley Buchanan, K. (1995). A study of the curriculum transition of the Christian Outreach College. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MEd

"The purpose of this study was to establish an overview of the curriculum (both formal and hidden) of Christian Outreach College as an ACE school (1978-1982); examine the perceived needs of the school and its members to adjust to and undertake a process of transition from a biblically-based curriculum to a state- based curriculum in both the classroom applications and the educational management of the school; and, investigate and identify the process of the transition to a state- based curriculum and the implications for the school community. The findings indicate that the Christian Outreach College has changed significantly in curriculum orientation after the transition from the ACE system to a state-based curriculum. As an ACE school, the College exhibited stringent Vocational/Neo- Classical traits centring on a Biblical core curriculum. Various social and academic concerns of parents and students induced school authorities to reconstruct the entire school curriculum towards a state-based educational system. Whilst the change in curriculum was necessary to provide a more satisfactory form of education for students, the Christian aspect of the College has diminished. It was found that the school, originally commenced as a training ground for Christian students, has developed into a liberal, token-Christian College."

 
 

"Nolan, B. C. (1995). Implementing departmental policy changes in small state schools in New South Wales. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

PhD

"Changes in the New South Wales Department of Education in the early 1990s were principally brought about through the implementation of recommendations of two reports - an interim report entitled School Renewal: A Strategy To Revitalise Schools Within the New South Wales State Education System (1989) and a final report, School Centred Education: Building A More Responsive State School System (1990), each chaired by Dr Brian Scott. The purpose of this study was to investigate the approach to change employed by regional representatives and field officers of the north west region to implement departmental policy changes in one-teacher schools over a period of significant structural upheaval in the New South Wales State education system. The major finding of the study was that the approach to change by senior executives of the north west region to implement policy changes in one- teacher schools employed pre-Scott ( 1989, 1990) was significantly different from the approach to change employed by senior executives post-Scott. The approaches to change evident during the three time periods of data collection may be summarised thus: pre-Scott - the general approach was one of authority in which the individual teachers- in-charge were told what to do by their superiors and were expected to show evidence of the change within six months; post-Scott 1 (June/July 1992) the general approach was one of training in which the superiors helped the individual principals to bring about the change over a period longer than two years; post- Scott 2 (June/July 1993) saw the general approach to change once again significantly alter. At this time an approach emerged in which the individual principals were encouraged by their superiors to be involved in the changes. The principals had a feeling of belonging and were expected to show evidence of implementing policy changes within one year. Analysis of data revealed that the main problems associated with getting one-teacher schools to change were the conservative nature of small school communities, the magnitude of the teaching principal's task, the isolation of many of the one- teacher schools and the lack of professional interaction. Further analysis revealed an increased maturity in relationships between superordinates and subordinates, emerging independence of principals of the one- teacher schools, a movement towards a participative management style by regional representatives and field officers and strong evidence that a major thrust of both reports of Scott to develop self managing schools was in fact emerging in the one- teacher schools of the north west region."

 
 

"Patterson, C. A. (1995). Policy, social influence and postmodernism: an analysis of policies of the Queensland Department of Education on school community decision making, 1988-1993. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt

"The purpose of this study is to investigate seven policy documents promulgated by the Queensland Department of Education between 1988 and 1993 on school community decision making to determine the integrity of their discourses and the validity of the assumptions made about contemporary society. Therefore, this study focuses on both the language of the documents and their social context. Interactive analysis, the methodology developed to investigate their language is a compilation of a number of existing approaches to document analysis with emphasis on the interactive nature of the features of language. The legitimacy of the assumptions made about their social context is tested against social conditions described by the oppositional tenets of modernism and postmodernism. The social democratic language of the discourses is often vague and imprecise and has been corrupted by the impact of economic rationalism and corporate managerialism of recent political incursions into the educational domain. The social framework has been manipulated to legitimise the hegemonic centralism concealed in the policy documents and is partly revealed from a modernist position and is exposed in full from a postmodernist position. The study suggests that policy analysts should be alert to the need to review concomitant policy pronouncements and must address the assumptions made about society in the documents and the social context of those documents with greater rigour. The limited implementation of these policies would seem to be attributable to both the corruption of their language and the manipulation of their social framework."

 
 

"Rae, N. A. (1995). The effects of an outcomes and profiles approach on music educators in New South Wales. Sydney NSW, University of Sydney. Sydney Conservatorium of Music."

MMus(MusEd)

"In 1988 educators, teachers, and administrators witnessed the beginning of an intense collaboration of Australian States and Territories to provide a national curriculum framework for Australian schools. The national curriculum framework was adapted by the New South Wales (NSW) Government and is known as the Outcomes and Profiles Approach. Many researchers have suggested that the national curriculum framework was modelled on the British National Curriculum, and that the Outcomes and Profiles Approach was imposed on schools by the NSW Government in a manner similar to the legislation of the British National Curriculum in England and Wales. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects the Outcomes and Profiles Approach has had on a selected sample of music educators in NSW primary schools and high schools. The results identified several major concerns that have arisen during the implementation of the Outcomes and Profiles Approach, including lack of teacher understanding of how to implement the approach; lack of time to implement the approach; increased administrative responsibilities detracting time from teaching; and lack of support documents and resources to assist implementation procedures. These findings are consistent with those expressed in the Eltis Review Report. This report was commissioned by the NSW Government to determine future directions of the Outcomes and Profiles Approach."

 
 

"Strykowski, M. (1995). The design and development of an interactive CAI program: An Introduction To Sound. Sydney NSW, University of Sydney. Sydney Conservatorium of Music."

MMus(MusEd)

"Technology is advancing at great speed. The appropriate application of new technology as an instructional tool in education continues to be in demand. This is evident in music education, where the computer is becoming an important instructional tool through the use of traditional software design models (drill and practice, tutorials, simulation, and games). Corresponding with this growth in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is a need to design better and more effective instructional tutorials. No longer can the design and presentation of CAI be based on intuition. Examination of the existing CAI research suggests that there are guidelines designers should take into consideration when developing instructional software programs. Informed programming decisions covering issues ranging from the use of graphics to the response time of the users can now be made based on this research. Consequently, efficient and effective CAI applications can be developed. An Introduction to Sound is a hypercard stack developed for the Apple Macintosh computer environment which has been designed with due consideration of these guidelines. The software presented is an introduction to the principles of sound and music suitable for use in conjunction with classroom teaching. The target audience is junior high school students, although the content and presentation may appeal to a much wider audience."

 
 

"Tsang, L. C. (1995). Dialectical and endogenous constructivist approaches in teaching physics to students with learning difficulties: a case study. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

PhD

"This study reports on an investigation into the relative effectiveness of using two different constructivist approaches, namely dialectic and endogenous, in the teaching of everyday physics to students who are classified as having mild learning difficulties. The study was concerned with developing conceptual understandings in Physics starting with the learners idiosyncratic and individual conceptions and with monitoring the process of conceptual change as opportunities for the discovery of problem solving strategies were provided using a set of prescribed procedures. The study was ultimately concerned with identifying which of these two constructivist approaches might be more appropriate for teaching science to children in this category. The study identified and characterised two forms of teacher behaviour corresponding to the endogenous and dialectic constructivist approaches and data was collected during the course of a program of interventions characterised by these two approaches. Indicators to monitor and arbitrarily measure the process of conceptual change teaching were developed for use during the course of these interventions. It was the intention of this study to develop and implement two different instructional procedures and sets of materials which exemplified the two distinct constructivist approaches mentioned above. It attempted to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the impact of each program on the development of physics concepts in the sample and to establish whether a constructivist approach to science teaching is appropriate for students falling within the category of 'mildly intellectually disabled', and if so, which of the two approaches was most effective. Data demonstrated that these two approaches can each promote meaningful conceptual change learning and that short term memory attention deficits normally associated with these children did not seem to interfere with either the process or the outcomes of the interventions. There was evidence of conceptual transfer as well as active learning throughout the course of the research in both approaches and significantly this occurred in a study of Physics, a discipline in which even regular students have tended to exhibit a high level of passivity."

 
 

"Unsworth, L. C. (1995). How and why: recontextualizing science explanations in school science books. Camperdown NSW, University of Sydney."

PhD

"This study extends systemic-functional linguistic accounts of explanation genres in school science books with a view to enhancing explicit, linguistically-based pedagogies, which see students' learning of science as concomitant with their learning to control the semiotic resources that construe scientific knowledge. The study has two main interrelated concerns. The first is a clarification and extension of recent functional linguistic work describing different types of explanation in school science books. The second is an account of the linguistic variation within and across such explanation types and a comparison of this variation across junior secondary school textbooks and information books used by children in the upper primary school. The analyses provide some linguistic evidence to support the distinction of at least three agnate explanation genres: transformational, realizational and orientational explanations. The comparative analyses of secondary texts in the same field enabled an interpretation of the relative effectiveness of linguistic choices in each text in contributing to its explanation of the phenomenon. One text in each of two fields, and two texts in the third field, clearly provided more effective explanations than the other texts. The fact that three of these four texts were from the same textbook series with the same authors, suggested that composing effective pedagogic explanations is an aspect of expertise which some authors exercise consistently. The analyses of the primary texts showed that the proposed accounts of schematic structure potential were applicable across school levels. Although significant inadequacies were identified in at least one text in each of the three fields, the remaining texts in two of the fields provided functional approximations to the most effective secondary texts. This seemed to be due to the capacity of the linguistic construction of these explanation types to accommodate the obvious recontextualizing strategy of keeping explanations brief in primary school books. However, this was not the case with realizational explanations of sound waves, which were problematic in al primary texts. On the whole the primary texts compared poorly with the secondary texts in scaffolding the novice readers negotiation of the specialised language of school science."

 
 

"Weir, M. R. (1995). Aboriginal pedagogy and lists of cultural differences. Armidale NSW, University of New England."

MCurrSt(Hons)

"This thesis is concerned with the issue of an appropriate pedagogy for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. It arises from concerns that current education provision in Australia is inappropriate and thus contributes to the disadvantaged sociocultural status of Aborigines. Existing research on Aboriginal pedagogy is examined in this thesis and, drawn together in a way that enables basic assumptions about Aborigines to be challenged. Aboriginal researchers' concerns about the suitability of Western theoretical frameworks for addressing Aboriginal issues, are validated in six specific areas. Also, an urban/rural Aboriginal cultural typology from which theoretical education perspectives can be extrapolated, is developed. Most Aboriginal pedagogy research focuses on cultural differences between Aborigines and non Aborigines. Controversy has arisen over the interpretive base of this method and, also, whether these lists can be applied to all Aboriginal children. This inquiry was thus shaped around a research focus question which opened the way for these aspects of the research to be examined: Can constructed lists of cultural differences, between Aborigines and non Aborigines, be applied to all Aboriginal children? The results show that non Aboriginal researcher contributions, albeit well meaning, have been based on cultural misinterpretations and lack of understanding about the nature of Aboriginal diversity as well as the reality of contemporary Aboriginal lifestyles. Since published research materials influence educational decision makers as well as other researchers, it is obvious that Aborigines need to publish, to control the research process and to devise ways of cooperatively utilising the unique contributions of all researchers. Six components are essential to this procedure: constructing guidelines for researcher practice; prioritising research issues; identifying culturally appropriate research instruments; identifying mechanisms for 'unlearning' cultural misconceptions about Aborigines; publishing critiques of existing research; and developing theoretical frameworks for researching Aboriginal issues. Researcher cooperation is essential to this process. Until these research issues are resolved, Aboriginal students and their communities will continue to bear the sociocultural effects of inappropriate education provision, and Aboriginal cultural maintenance will consequently continue to be negatively affected."

 

QLD

 
 

"Bennet, S. (1995). The role of geography textbooks in education for the environment: A discourse analysis of geography 16-19 project texts. Nathan QLD, Griffith University."

MEnvEd

"The principles of education for the environment have received widespread acceptance amongst environmental educators as a means of conveying a philosophy which promotes positive change for society and ecologically sustainable practices. Geography is potentially the existing school subject best able to act as a vehicle of education for the environment. The Geography 16 - 19 Project, a British curriculum project, adopted a people/environment approach and enquiry-based learning strategies to assist in the facilitation of environmental education. The textbooks produced by the Project team are exemplar resources for the Project's philosophies and strategies. Literature reviews were conducted on geography as a school subject, environmental education, the Geography 16 - 19 Project and the notion of discourse. A method of discourse analysis was then applied to a selection of the Geography 16 - 19 Project texts. The analysis focused on the effects of choice of content, approaches to environmental issues, the use of passive agency and metaphor on the texts' messages about environmental issues and positive behaviours for the environment. The analysis revealed the limits to which the texts, as a collection, might potentially educate students for the environment through geography. Examples of those sections of the ARC education for the environment were highlighted, and suggestions were the texts might be improved to strengthen links with environmental education."

 
 

"Bray, J. (1995). Ecological economics education: A discussion paper. Nathan QLD, Griffith University."

MEnvEd

"The majority of literature in the area of sustainable development questions the nature of continued economic growth. Recent reports conclude that humankind requires a new, more ecologically sustainable and socially just pattern of development. The epoxy of the discipline of economics and the principles of sustainable development has been recognised, however there seems to be a mismatch between the interconnectedness of both areas. In recent times in Australia (and elsewhere) there has been a major rejuvenation of the economics- education nexus, especially at the secondary school level. It seems clear there is an expectation for students to be prepared to become productive units in a growth driven economy. The problems with this expectation is that the natural environment is sacrificed to achieve short-term (in an ecological time scale) gains. The 'economist within' has developed through time and is a product of the 'neoclassical approach' to economics. Neoclassical economics education is dominant within most secondary school economics syllabuses and is nurturing the ' economist within'. Neoclassical economics is not sustainable, therefore debate is required to offer new approaches to the economics discipline. The broadening of the perceived notions of economic literacy is required. Ecological economics is offered as a alternative to neoclassical economics. A radical change in the environment- education - economics relationship that asserts the primacy of caring for the environment is offered through ecological economics education. If ecological economics education can offer a broadening of economic literacy among students (the decision makers of tomorrow) then the present structures of schooling and curriculum require change."

 
 

"Burnard, P. A. (1995). A study of the relationship between task design and the experience of composition in senior secondary music students. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEd

"Composition is an artistic process involving the invention and expression of ideas in sound (Paynter, 1992). However, within an educational context there is limited knowledge of how students actually learn, interact with, or are influenced by the types of compositional tasks used to initiative compositional activity at the senior secondary level. The purpose of the study was to investigate how tasks designs influence students' experience of composition. Participating in the study were eleven students in a music class at an independent girls' school where the researcher was a teacher. Students completed four compositions in response to four different tasks, one each term over one school year. Task designs offered opportunities to operate with a variety of constraints and freedom in decision making. Referred to as prescription, choice, or free response, tasks were viewed as 'preconditions guiding the generating of options' (Perkins and Leondar, 1977: 256). In addition to the collection of compositions, further data were obtained from self report documents including 'composer's diaries', 'composer writes pages', and questionnaires. The following aspects of compositional experience were reported: student execution of tasks though description of compositions; compositional approaches in response to varied tasks; and self reflection on experiences with different task designs. The findings of this study show that students experience constraints and freedom differently. It was found they utilised tasks to function in different capacities, in part determined by their working style, background, and self concept as composers. The conditions of artistic learning set by tasks determined how they related to each composition and the nature of the musical outcome. Significantly, in the absence of task imposed constraints students construct their own. It seems that providing task options promotes the individual, allows access to varied banks of knowledge and experiences, stimulates imagination, and extends artistic learning. The conclusions emerging suggest that constraints and freedom are artistically significant in the realisation of a composition. Tasks should differentiate between 'instruction' tasks for learning and skill acquisition of 'accumulated lore' (Howard, 1977), and ' composition' tasks which allow students to participate as makers of the role of artistic creator, valuing individuality and unpredictable outcomes."

 
 

"Creevey, M. (1995). The collaborative role of parental participation in school policy development: a case study. Brisbane QLD, Australian Catholic University Queensland."

MEd

"This case study is centred on the examination of the role of parental involvement in school policy development. It documents the collaborative process of school policy development in the field of computer and technology education. The following research questions were generated on an apriori basis. Do parents wish to be involved in the collaborative development of school policy design and in what capacity? What are the factors and conditions that need to be present to promote parental involvement? What are the barriers and obstacles that impede the involvement of parents in policy development? What are the benefits to the school community of parental involvement in school policy making? Whilst the particular task of this study was to develop a school computer and technology policy the process undertaken by staff, parents and administration personnel was within the scope and design of an action research project. This project commenced with the formation of a committee comprised of staff, parent and administration representatives. The committee developed a strategy that was collaborative in nature within the relationships of the working party, yet consultative with the wider respective communities namely the school parent body and the teaching staff. The findings of the case study revealed that parents generally sought to be involved in school policy development particularly in the nonacademic domain. The factors that promoted this parental involvement in policy development were the existence of a conducive atmosphere, role of the principal, open channels of communication, a consultative process, the existence of a suitable incentive for parents, and external factors such as government and/ or systemic policies. There were some identified barriers to this collaborative policy formation. These included available parental time, parental feelings of inadequacy, expressions of apathy, the use of technical language or jargon by teachers, and the presence of some negative parental energies that hindered the process. Finally the case study identified the benefits of the collaborative involvement of parents in school policy development as the establishment of a constructive partnership between parents and teachers, comprehensive policy development, and the increased level of ownership and commitment exhibited by staff and parents."

 
 

"Dixon, S. (1995). Assessment practices in an information processing and technology course in Queensland secondary schools. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

MEd

"The aim of this study was to investigate and describe aspects of assessment in a course of study in senior secondary schools in Queensland, namely the senior subject Information Processing and Technology. This research reflects on the appropriateness of the assessment criteria in the Information Processing and Technology syllabus. It explores the range of techniques used to gather assessment data. Of critical interest was an investigation of the cognitive processes students need to use to successfully respond to assessment items in Information Processing and Technology. Allied with this was the issue of whether there appeared to be any difficulties in teachers' interpretations of the assessment criteria in the syllabus. The literature review found ample support for the assessment criteria given in the syllabus and provided pointers to aspects of the assessment items for investigation. The range and nature of assessment tasks used was investigated by analysing assessment items submitted for review by all 113 schools offering the subject to the cohort of students who exited Year 12 in 1993. In all schools teachers had provided ample opportunity for students to demonstrate their abilities in the use of lower cognitive skills. Almost all schools provided sufficient opportunity for students to demonstrate their abilities in the areas of analysis and synthesis. In a high proportion of schools, teachers had not set assessment tasks that necessarily required students to use evaluation to successfully respond to the tasks. Many schools did not require students to engage in effective communication. Parallel practices seem to occur in mathematics and science subjects. In several schools, there were problems with teacher categorisation of the cognitive abilities associated with the tasks they had set. Speculation on reasons for this is made."

 
 

"Duffy, P. D. (1995). Using the computer in art education: a case study of integrating art and technology. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

MEd

"The research reported in this thesis was an investigation into the integration of art and technology. The purpose of this study in the first instance was to analyse various perspectives both for and against the inclusion of computer technology within present art curriculum from a literature conceptual framework. These literature perspectives were seen to have advocated an agenda for the inclusion of technology within art education from an essentialistic and deterministic structure. In order to deconstruct these preconceived notions regarding the use of computer technology within art education these literature perspectives were 'grounded' within the context specific, causal nature of a qualitative case study. The research consisted of an organisational case study that dealt with the experiences of fifteen year ten art students and their first interaction with computer technology within an art context. Various qualitative research methodologies were used to document the substantive data that occurred. Specific phenomena were then related to the issues that emerged from the literature analysis. The results revealed that several literature perspectives were supported within this particular context, but also that additional considerations emerged within cognitive, curricular and attitudinal domains. This study highlighted issues within the paradigm of art and technology that need to be addressed if the potential for the use of computer technology within present art curriculum is to be realised and the computer as an artistic medium is to be, not an imitator of present art process, but rather an initiator of new ones. This study also provides various theoretical (literature) and practical (the case study ) filters through which art teachers can deconstruct a specific interaction of art and technology. These differing perspectives relating to art and computer technology are seen to provide a structure for art teachers to develop a sound philosophy behind their inclusion or exclusion of this technology within their own educational context."

 
 

"Duncan, M. (1995). Visual arts, technology and education: how can teaching and learning in high school visual arts classrooms be enriched by the use of computer technology? Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

MEd

"The aim of this study was to explore the reality of the classroom use of computers for three visual arts high school teachers and determine how computer technology might enrich visual arts teaching and learning. This study found that computer technology has the potential to enrich visual arts education in a wide variety of curriculum areas. Computer technology offers both a means of extending traditional media and a new medium for creative exploration as well as a resource for teaching and learning in art history, studio practice, aesthetics and criticism. However, in order for the participants in this study to take full advantage of these possibilities, further professional development and funding is required. In particular, the study found that professional development experiences need to be placed within the broader context of the full range of activities suitable for enriching visual arts education while taking into account the individual circumstances of each teacher in order to offer realistic and achievable goals suited to their level of development, available technology and special interests. Briefly put, visual arts teachers need a way to assess quickly their current position in relation to the use of technology in order to know where they are going. The study recommends that resources should be designed for the visual arts classroom that promote a more realistic approach to computer implementation. Such materials should, firstly, present an enlightened and long term view of the integration of computers across all areas of the visual arts curriculum and secondly, demonstrate logical and incremental steps to guide teachers as they work towards that goal. Sources of funding are needed to provide these resources for the visual arts as well as much needed technical support, equipment updates and other commercially prepared resources such as interactive multimedia CD- ROM titles. It is also considered appropriate that computer networks be established between art teachers to encourage the sharing of successful classroom strategies and ideas while modelling the use of computer networks to students. In order to achieve these aims, the wider school community needs to recognise the relevance and value of visual arts education to contemporary society and to students in an age of visual information."

 
 

"Dunne, T. A. (1995). A study of the use of mathematical modelling as a core teaching methodology in junior secondary mathematics. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEd

"This research contributes to meeting a need for a teaching methodology which allows students to construct their own knowledge, and which can replace or enhance a traditional pedagogy involving the exposition of ideas, techniques and worked examples by the teacher, leading to illustrative exercises by students. While many students successfully learn within the traditional classroom environment, many students are mystified by the mathematical concepts which teachers attempt to impart to them. This study aimed to demonstrate that a pedagogy based on the process of mathematical modelling substantially assists the acquisition and understanding of mathematical ideas, concepts, methods and theories, as well as improving students' attitudes to mathematics and their competency in communicating their mathematical solutions. Over a two year period, a year 8 program in a Queensland Catholic College was re-designed, appropriate resources were constructed, and a mathematical modelling course was implemented and evaluated with one class of students. Students completed surveys at the start and end of the trial teaching year to investigate changes in attitude to mathematics. Quantitative data were collected in the form of test results in common with another class in the school. Qualitative data were collected in the form of student journal statements, and teacher classroom observations in diary form. Excerpts of work from five students were chosen for detailed case studies. The study was expanded in the following year, in which the trial program was implemented by all year 8 teachers in the school who then provided evaluations of the course and the methodology. The five case- study students were also included in follow-up evaluations nine months after completing the course. The results of the study indicate that students improved, in varying degrees with respect to their mathematical knowledge; their competency in solving problems; and their competency in communicating solutions. Some students also demonstrated an improved attitude to mathematics, but this was not conclusive for all students in the study. The study provides insights and implications for teachers of mathematics."

 
 

"Ford, L. A. (1995). The implementation of LOTE in primary schools: a Queensland case study. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEdAd

"The object of this study is to document the Queensland Education Department's implementation of Languages Other Than English (LOTE) into primary schools seen from the perspective of teachers involved at grass- roots level. The experiences described here are particular to the schools in the cluster concerned, and may, or may not, be representative of experiences elsewhere. Those involved were the teachers and administrators in a South-East Queensland high school and its feeder primary schools. The study recorded the impact on teachers: teacher behaviour, the demands made upon teachers, the information received and the reaction of various parties to the roles teachers played. The study also attempted to define, based on 1991-1994 experiences, some of the characteristics of successful and less successful primary LOTE teachers. The writer contends that the implementation of LOTE in primary school has been an overall success primarily because of the skills, dedication and personality of many teachers, rather than because of the leadership of bureaucrats and administrations. As a generalisation, those in charge of LOTE within a school, usually deputy principals, at times seemed more concerned with territorialism than with successfully implementing the program, The priorities of the teachers, on the other hand, were the students and the LOTE program."

 
 

"Garrick, B. G. (1995). Proximate solutions or strategic action? The implementation of the 1992 Queensland Education Department's social justice strategy in a Queensland high school. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEdAd

"This thesis is a study of the implementation of the Queensland Education Department's 1992 Social Justice Strategy in a high school in the eastern corridor of Brisbane. The study captures a moment in time when the staff at Brookridge State High School attempted to balance the conflicting and overwhelming pressures of socio-economic change as the area moved from a Fordist to post-service society, and consequent changes to education where the community looked to the schooling system to provide solutions to fulfilling employment options and issues of post- compulsory retention rates. In turn, the State education system compounded the problems of the school with an expectation that the Social Justice Strategy and a plethora of other reform packages were to be implemented without support in terms of staffing, funding and incentive to make those changes. The thesis therefore is an apposite representation, in microcosm, of the broader debates occurring both within the National and international policy terrain and seeks to show that not only does the schooling system require a moratorium or slowing of the pace of change, but also that policy makers need to recognise, and be sensitive to, different pressures occurring at different sites in different times - pressures in this school studied which were strong enough to refract the benefits of the 1992 Social Justice Strategy. The study concludes, on the basis of evidence available in one school, that the implementation of the 1992 Social Justice Strategy was a semi- cyclical rather than cyclical policy process and that established policy orthodoxy, which suggests that some refraction of a policy is inevitable, is augmented by the notion that, in this case, much of the refraction was sufficient to reflect the Strategy' s contents out of the school, back into the arena of State action. Parsimonious funding, reform overload, residual conservatism both within the school and within the State, and Commonwealth equity reforms in the past based on a micro-economic distributive agenda, combined to prevent the full acceptance of the Social Justice Strategy. The thesis shows clearly that, although staff at Brookridge State High School generally were not averse to the values which underpinned the Strategy, they were upset by reforms which asked more of their time and energy. In this. the study seeks to provide a timely warning."

 
 

"Gatt, M. M. (1995). The teaching of environmental education across the curriculum and specifically in the economics subject area. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

MEd

"The goal of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation - Environmental Programme (UNESCO- UNEP), for environmental education, is, 'to develop a world population that is aware of, and concerned about, the environment and its associated problems, and which has the skills, attitudes, motivations and commitment to work individually and collectively toward solutions of current problems and prevention of new ones'. The recommendations made by UNESCO-UNEP outline an education which is 'for' the environment, rather than just 'about' the environment. This study examined the extent to which environmental economics is currently being taught in Brisbane secondary schools, in a bid to discover what changes economics teachers propose, in order to facilitate a more effective economics education, 'for' the protection and improvement of the environment."

 
 

"Gaynor, M. A. (1995). Philosophical mismatches within the Queensland primary social studies curriculum. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

MEd

"The study aims at exploring the mismatches between the Queensland primary social studies syllabus and sourcebook documents. It explores the history of curriculum development in general before covering the development of the social studies curriculum. The approaches of citizenship transmission and reflective inquiry are discussed and are cited as being responsible for the philosophical mismatches that exist between the syllabus and sourcebook documents. To illustrate this mismatch, the controversies concerning the Year 5 sourcebook are explored more closely."

 
 

"Gepp, R. (1995). 'The literacy debate': current representations in newspapers and professional education journals in Queensland. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

MEd

"'Literacy debate' is a generally accepted term for a generally accepted crisis in our culture. The aim of this study was to establish the essence of this debate in the current decade. The questions thence were to identify the participants in the debate, establish the focus of the debate and note the frequency of the debate in the daily press and in educational journals. The present study analysed the contents of such articles found in newspapers and education journals between 1990 - 1994 and then sought to quantify and categorise the information found in these. Articles were retrieved from database searches on a daily basis for the Courier Mail 1992 to 1994 whilst the Australian newspaper articles were restricted to 1994 publications. Education journals were selected for their availability and relevance to Queensland primary teachers and were searched for relevant articles from 1990 to 1994. Results indicated that a two sided public debate was not taking place. Generally articles in daily newspapers were written outside the education sphere, portraying an anxiety about literacy attainments, providing suggested solutions and indicating a preference for a kind of literacy which Street describes as having 'universal literacy functions'. Educators, on the other hand, appeared to be more intent on absorbing the latest ideas in literacy understanding, applying these to classroom situations and were more clearly aligned with Street's 'ideological' model."

 
 

"Glynn, N. (1995). Learning to design and represent algorithms. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

MEd

"This study examined the literature to determine an instructional approach that will enable students to learn to design and represent algorithms. Two major sources were used for this study, research literature and programming texts. The research literature provided justification for using introductory programming as a vehicle for learning to design and express algorithms. It also identified the knowledge components, both syntactic and semantic, that must be acquired when learning to design and represent algorithms. In this context syntactic knowledge is the knowledge of the fundamental elements of algorithms and the rules for combining these elements. Semantic knowledge refers to meaning of the elements and the knowledge of how these elements can be meaningfully combined. The research literature was also examined for principles that can be used to design the curriculum materials. A number of texts already exist which are concerned with introductory programming. In each, programming can have a variety of meanings. In its broadest sense it defines the entire process of problem solving where the production of a computer program is involved. In its narrowest sense, it is the coding into a specific programming language of a well defined algorithm. Programming in this document refers to the entire process and the term coding is used to refer to process of producing code from a well defined algorithm. Introductory programming texts were examined to see if the approaches suggested by the research literature are being used. If the approaches were not already being used then curriculum materials that demonstrate the approaches derived from the research literature were developed."

 
 

"Heffernan, J. M. (1995). Developing an aesthetic stance in a primary literature program. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

MEd

"This study documents the steps involved in the implementation of a response-based literature program in a year six classroom within an independent boys' school. A response- based literature program encourages personal transactions with literary works before any objective analysis of such texts. The results of this study are intended to form the theoretical basis of the literature curriculum within the school. As part of the study, a review of the commercially- produced literature based reading scheme currently used in the school was conducted. The review showed that the teaching strategies and response activities suggested in the accompanying teacher's manual concentrated on the objective analysis of literary works rather than personal interpretations of those works. This seemed to be inconsistent with recent research findings which advocate that the teaching of literature should focus on the transaction which occurs between the reader and the text and the subsequent personal response evoked from that transaction before any analysis of the text is required. Based on this premise, the study investigated teaching methods which would provide opportunities for personal responses to be evoked. In particular Rosenblatt's notion of aesthetic teaching was used. This notion suggests that the reader's attention should be focused on the personal, lived-through experience of the text before any objective examination occurs. Building on the research of other theorists, such as Cox and Many; Short; Langer; and Wiseman and Many, aesthetic teaching strategies were identified and implemented into a twelve month literature program. The aesthetic strategies used were: a supportive literary environment; open-ended prompts; literary discussions; reading journals; and recreative responses. Data collected from the primary source of students' oral and written personal responses to texts and the secondary source of interviews with the classroom teacher were analysed within a framework of features derived from issues identified in the literature. These findings supported the contention that an aesthetic teaching approach encourages students to develop personal interpretations of texts. From these findings, conclusions were formed which provided the theoretical framework for a revised literature program at Braybrook College."

 
 

"Johnson, G. C. (1995). Teaching English as a non-unitary S/subject: a post-personal account of practice. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

PhD

"This thesis examines the multiple ways in which English teaching is practised and accounted for in Queensland secondary school classrooms. The author argues that teachers construct and are constructed as certain kinds of subjects in Subject English. The study focuses on practices rather than on persons, ie, the aim of the investigation is teaching practice rather than teacher behaviour. The theoretical focus of the study is derived from poststructural or 'post- personal' concepts of language rather than psychological or personal conceptualisations. Arguing from within a social theory of language, the concepts of discourse and position are central to the thesis argument that English is a nonunitary S/ subject. The discourses and practices which are made visible in the analysis of the teachers' writing and talk are: moral responsibility, literacy (including assessment) and authority. Literacy is the dominant discourse. It shifts and changes within and across the instances of English teaching so as to become pluralised. The located literacies fall within the expanse of the pre- personal, personal and postpersonal categories and are named as traditional and functional (pre- personal), author/voice (personal), and critical literacy (post- personal). Genre literacy slips across the three categories. The discourses of moral responsibility (care) and authority (control) always accompany literacies with the resultant effect that in any instance the version of English proposed in the teachers' writing or talk finds some reconciliation in care and control. The finding that English is a non- unitary S/ subject constructed of related, shifting and conflicting discourses has important implications for English teaching insofar as it makes visible the kinds of care and control implied in the located literacy pedagogies. The analysis of writing and talk in the thesis problematises English teaching so that educators can no longer claim that practice is neutral, or natural or ideologically pure. In the analysis of teachers' writing and talk, this study presents a 'post- personal' methodology for studying the work teachers do inside as well as outside classrooms so that teachers may examine their own discursive practices. The study also enables teachers to become acquainted with ways of teaching English different from the personalist way which predominates at present."

 
 

"Jones, J. A. M. T. (1995). Low achieving students' behaviour in and perceptions of a cooperative learning unit of work in mixed gender groups in science. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

MEd

"The purpose of this study was to collect and analyse data from a class of low achieving students, the focus was on their behaviour and perceptions during a cooperative learning unit of work in science. The data were used to ascertain two things: Are there any gender related differences in behaviour or perceptions of cooperative group learning in science for low achieving students during the unit of work; and what conditions were necessary for females and males to work cooperatively in mixed gender groups in science. Results indicated that when group work was not structured for interdependence, individual accountability and use of positive social skills, negative interpersonal relationships emerged. This resulted from participation patterns of female dominance and male reluctance. When group work was structured for interdependence, individual accountability and use of social skills cooperation occurred between females and males. Schools should consider use of well structured cooperative learning to encourage low achievers, female participation and cooperation between females and males in science classes."

 
 

"Lester, N. C. (1995). An evaluation of an audiographic device as a means of teaching visual arts degree level studies at a distance. Toowoomba QLD, University of Southern Queensland."

MEd

"Moves towards the use of advanced interactive technology in distance education have not only increased the two way communication between the student and the lecturer but also has widened the course type possibilities that can be offered in this mode. This study evaluates the use of an audiographic device, the Optel Telewriter, as a means of teaching degree level visual arts at a distance. A combination of a one shot context evaluation and a one group pretest posttest design was used along with attitudinal measures, interviews and an analysis of the recorded Optel Telewriter gave rise to the data collected. The objectives of the study were to determine the success of facilitating the learning of an art technique, facilitating aesthetic development, and facilitating two way communication. The participants were all volunteers who were actively involved in the arts and qualified to apply for enrolment in a visual arts degree course. The results indicated that the Optel Telewriter presentations did facilitate the learning of an arts technique and two way communication. Along with these and other findings, the implication of using the audiographic device as a means of teaching degree level visual arts at a distance are presented."

 
 

"Parker, J. J. (1995). Writing in mathematics - a problem solving genre. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

MEd

"The primary role of mathematics education is to assist students in acquiring an understanding of the principles of mathematics and their application to the real world, and to communicate such understandings in a manner which is acceptable to the community in general and the mathematical community in particular. The use of writing in mathematics has been proposed as one way of attaining these goals. This study reviews the current literature on problem solving, teaching mathematics for understanding and writing in mathematics. Genre writing is being used extensively in some secondary school writing subjects and the literature relating to the nature and role of genre writing is examined. A problem solving genre which is intended to provide students with support during the process of problem solving is then proposed. The proposed problem solving genre is trialled with a class of 28 Year 8 mathematics students and their implementation of the genre in solving two problems is examined in terms of the genre's potential for assisting students in the process of problem solving and also of its potential for assisting students in producing a written solution to a problem which adequately communicates their mathematical processes and solution."

 
 

"Parkinson, B. (1995). From the ashes... the rise of the key competencies from the ashes of Dawkins' national initiatives. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

MEdSt

"This thesis examines the Mayer Report as an example of national education policy developed after the Australian Education Council ( AEC) endorsed the 'Common and agreed national goals for schooling in Australia' in Hobart, April 1989. This examination shows clearly that the Mayer Report is a product of the prevailing ideologies of the Federal Labor Government in the early 1990s. This ideology included a commitment to social justice albeit within an economic framework. Just as corporate managerialism sought a more efficient, effective and flexible public service, the Mayer Report sought to emphasise in education and training the skills that an efficient, effective and flexible workforce would require. However, this thesis also shows that fears expressed about industry controlled post-compulsory schooling have not been realised. First, the Mayer Committee saw the Key Competencies as only some of the outcomes of education. Secondly, post- compulsory schooling reflects very sharply the different education systems within Australia. Any consistent national approach to schooling that would seem to threaten the autonomy of the states and territories has little chance of success. Finally, the thesis demonstrates that the general statements of the key competencies are worthy of the title, 'The basics of education in an information age'."

 
 

"Parry, L. J. (1995). Ideas, educators and their contexts: a study of social studies curriculum development and reform efforts in Queensland, 1969-1989. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

PhD

"This study is centred on the work of two departmental subcommittees responsible for the design and development of social studies syllabuses and related curriculum materials for state primary schools in Queensland from 1969 to 1989. The formation, role and curriculum development activities of both subcommittees are examined as part of broader attempts to reform the primary school curriculum in Queensland. The intellectual and other contextual influences which impacted upon the work of both subcommittees are examined by identifying and interpreting the source of social studies ideas, their influence upon the processes of curriculum design and development, and their identifiable curricular products. Two significant episodes of curriculum design and development within the period 1969 to 1989 are investigated. The first subcommittee developed a 'new social studies' syllabus from 1969 to 1971 in response to perceived inadequacies in the 1952 syllabus. It drew heavily on the inductive theory of Hilda Taba from the United States in terms of its philosophy, structural arrangement and teaching strategies. It was a theoretically well informed and innovative episode of curriculum design and development which called for the reform of teaching and learning of social studies in state primary schools in Queensland. The 1971 syllabus was revised by another subcommittee, from 1981 to 1989. This subcommittee responded to perceived problems experienced with the implementation of the 'new social studies' syllabus in state primary classrooms, but not with its intentions, curricular structure and design. A major aspect of the work of the second subcommittee involved the design and development of a scope and sequence chart which drew on a theoretical framework ('the expanding communities' curriculum) advanced by Paul R Hanna in the United States. They also prepared voluminous teaching materials as sourcebooks for each year level. However, insufficient attention was given to the construction of significant social and cultural knowledge in the sourcebooks, and the teaching strategies were not as advanced pedagogically as those designed in the 1971 syllabus. It was a reactionary era of curriculum development, one which addressed the pragmatic concerns of teachers and sought to reestablish more centralised control over the social studies curriculum. Their work in curriculum development was not as theoretically informed as the preceding subcommittee, and failed to extend the teaching and learning of social studies in state primary schools in Queensland. The findings of the study suggest that future revisions of the social studies curriculum in Queensland need to acknowledge the significance of intellectual and other contextual influences such as, advances in conceptual thinking about syllabus design and development, about teaching, and about the professional needs of teachers. Their impact on past curriculum development and reform efforts, and their continuing influence upon existing syllabuses and related curriculum materials should also be considered carefully."

 
 

"Smith, C. M. (1995). Teachers' reading practices in the secondary school writing classroom: a reappraisal of the nature and function of pre-specified assessment criteria. St Lucia QLD, University of Queensland."

PhD

Abstract not available

 
 

"Smyth, R. A. (1995). Curriculum change and retention: a study of post-compulsory students in a rural high school. Toowoomba QLD, University of Southern Queensland."

MEd

"This study has focused upon the impact of changing the curriculum in a small rural high school to improve the retention of students into the post-compulsory years. An examination of the opinions of the stakeholders directly affected by the school's decision to expand the curriculum provided essential information for this evaluation. Data was gathered using a two part questionnaire which included an attitude inventory and open ended response questions. The study examined the impact of the curriculum change on the first cohort of students to experience the new curriculum and the methodology would be suitable for use in a longitudinal evaluation. The data indicated that the introduction of vocational options was strongly supported by the students, staff, parents and employers involved in the implementation of the new curriculum. Their opinions gave decision- makers sufficient information to make minor modifications to the curriculum for the benefit of following cohorts. Evidence from school records, leavers destination surveys and Higher School Certificate results indicated that there had been some improvement in student outcomes corresponding with the introduction of the new curriculum. This study concluded that curriculum modification has the potential to improve the rate at which students return to complete the post-compulsory years of schooling in the small rural school in which the study was undertaken."

 
 

"Tse, M. (1995). Environmental education for a multicultural Australia. Nathan QLD, Griffith University."

MEnvEd

"This research project explores the relevance of environmental education and the needs of Australian ethnic minorities regarding access to this social resource. Theoretically, environmental education is for every one of us and 'every person should be provided with opportunity to acquire the knowledge, values, attitudes, commitment and skill needed to protect and improve the environment.'(UNESCO-UNEP 1978). In practice, environmental education is found to have fallen short of this goal. The purpose of this study is to raise the issue and to address the problem that there is a gap between promise and performance in environmental education in this aspect. As a whole, this project has taken a critical perspective which critiques the approach dominant in environmental education in this country. Most of the environmental education programs we now have are designed for the English speaking public while the needs of Non English speaking citizens are being overlooked. Changes which would 'provide greater social justice and enhance human potential.' (Stevenson, 1993) therefore need to be made in the practices of environmental education. The first part of this study is a review of literature which clarifies the intentions and assumptions in environmental education and the development of multiculturalism in Australia. With these concepts properly aligned, it is logical to deduce that environment education in Australia should go in the direction of racial and cultural diversity. The second part of this project is designed to address the problem that citizens with Non English speaking background do not have access to environmental education equal to that of the English speaking general public. The obstacles and misconceptions that lead to this phenomenon are identified and discussed. Finally, a recommendation of changes regarding future program planning and implementation for both environmental organisations and educators is given."

 
 

"Watts, J. D. (1995). A question of balance? Girls' nominal participation in higher-level school mathematics. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

PhD

"The overall purpose of this investigation, situated in a macrocontext of nominal participation of girls in higher- level school mathematics, was to examine, analyse, and describe the way in which a bounded case of Year 10-11 girls viewed their participation in higher-level school mathematics. The focal point of the investigation was the positing of an heuristic model to illuminate why the participants within the bounded case did not wish to participate in higher-level school mathematics. From this model and from the case, it was theorised why some girls avoid higher-level school mathematics; and that, through conceptual generalisations, the heuristic model may help to illuminate, in part, the probability of a girl participating in higher-level school mathematics. This thesis is a construction of the investigation of the beliefs ( perceptions, perspectives, intentions and understandings) of five female secondary students relating to their participation in higher- level school mathematics. An idiosyncratic heuristic case study approach was used to investigate the participants' beliefs. From data analyses and interpretative constructions, it was posited that these girls' beliefs relating to participation in higher-level school mathematics were associated with lifestyle construction, including a balance between the constructed self and constructed life environments. The participants seemed to have constructed a participation ecosystem, consisting of a network of parts, which together formed a balance which influenced their participation choices. Their preferred mathematics construction differed markedly from their higher-level school mathematics construction, and it was apparent that the balance in their lives excluded participation in higher-level school mathematics. From the evidence presented, conceptual generalisations were posited for use in further and broader research purposes, and the heuristic model was viewed as a catalyst for the reconceptualising and reinterpreting of further exploratory models for investigating and explaining participation in school subjects and equivalent."

 
 

"Wilkinson, J. M. (1995). Vocationalism in Australia: a qualitative study of the impact of restructuring on education. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

PhD

"This research was an exercise in educational policy interpretation and analysis, focussing, in particular, on the policies of vocationalism which have been instrumental in the restructuring of education in Australia. These policies and their implementation have radically altered tertiary institutions and have also impacted upon secondary systems. They were initiated by Employment, Education and Training Minister, John Dawkins (1987-1991). The thesis concentrated on investigating three research questions. The first involved an interpretation and analysis of Dawkins' policies, while the second sought to interpret and analyse perceptions of the impact of the implementation of the policies at tertiary and secondary levels. The third research question involved an investigation of the elements required to construct an appropriate theoretical model which will enable the integration of general and vocational education. Analysis of the policies indicated that they are functionalist in nature with priority being afforded to vocationalist skills and competencies supported by a human capital rationale, and that financial accountability and institutional rationalisation were key factors in the restructuring. Data analysed in the research indicated that ideological refraction, modified by political and financial considerations, was operational throughout the secondary schooling systems. Secondary school principals in the private sector, having developed their own educational philosophies, have distanced themselves considerably from the restructuring process. State Departmental educators' favourable theoretical responses to the policies were modified by politics and the Constitutional issue of state rights. Catholic educators, whose systems are dependent on federal funding, were generally responsive to the policies. The research findings showed that the policies, being a pragmatic response by a government to a perceived political crisis lack an appropriate underpinning educational theory. The study's findings of a theoretical model integrating general and vocational education informed by the literature review, the research analysis and by Dewey's educational philosophy, are offered as a possible solution to the problem of vocationalism."

 
 

"Williams, H. M. (1995). Curriculum conceptions of open learning: theory, intention and student experience in the Australian open learning initiative. Brisbane QLD, Queensland University of Technology."

PhD

"This thesis addresses the need to clarify the meaning of the open learning concept. It does so from a curriculum perspective and with a particular focus on curriculum control. The reason for this is that open learning is said to involve control of curriculum by learners. The study draws on curriculum theory to identify three alternative conceptions of curriculum which are used as alternative ways of considering open learning. Thus, open learning is examined as an element of social theory, as an intended curriculum and as a perceived student learning experience. The analysis is facilitated by the development of a suite of analytical tools, comprising curriculum code theory and the concepts of frame and decision-making space. Students are considered as curriculum decision-makers in order to investigate their latitude for curriculum control from their own perspective. By comparing the three conceptions of open learning listed above as they apply to a particular case of open learning provision, by analysing that case in terms of the suite of analytical tools and by considering the relevant historical and socio-cultural context, a new theory of open learning is generated. The new theory implies that a systems wide, rather than a piecemeal, approach to the development of national systems of open learning is needed. In Australia, this means fully integrating the Initiative within the Unified National System of Higher Education and making its funding base and systems of student support more equitable with conventional provision. The study identifies the learners' context as a significant but previously unacknowledged constraint on students' decision-making and learner control of curriculum. It notes that transfer of control over entering a program of study is not automatically conferred by an open admissions policy but is, instead, dependent on providers meeting the information needs of students."

 

SA

 
 

"Bragadottir, S. H. (1995). Portfolio assessment in writing: a case study of a Year 5 classroom. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"The overall aim for this study was to describe how portfolio assessment in writing was set up by an experienced teacher, how she and the students assessed the writing portfolios, and how the assessment was communicated to parents and caregivers. This study used a case study methodology based largely on observation. The focus of this study was a Year 5 teacher, her students, and their understanding of portfolio assessment in writing. After each day in the classroom fieldnotes were rewritten and interviews transcribed. After data summaries were made the data were analysed and categorised. Overall the data were analysed to show the students' understanding of portfolios, their motivation and self assessment in writing. Data were also analysed to show the role of the teacher in portfolio assessment and the amount of work involved in her portfolio assessment. Furthermore, the portfolios were analysed to see how they showed progress in writing and facilitated further learning. Finally, data were analysed to show how information from the portfolio assessment was communicated to parents and caregivers."

 
 

"Chapman, L. R. (1995). Creativity and arts education. Bedford Park SA, Flinders University of South Australia."

MEd

"'Creativity' is a term which occurs in academic articles on education and in Australian government curriculum documents. Despite an extensive debate in the 1960s there is a vagueness attendant upon this term and considerable inconsistency in its application. This is a matter for concern because creativity is an important concept in that aspect of culture which we designate as the arts and it is by that token a significant concept in arts education. The writings of three educational theorists have been important in the discussion of 'creativity': White Olford and Elliott. In the field of arts theory and aesthetics the writings of Maitland, Beardsley and Hospers provide a framework for considering the concept. Out of these writings in the fields of educational theory, arts theory and aesthetics six issues relating to creativity arise. These issues are, the locus of creativity, creativity as problem solving, as novelty, as discovery, as inspiration, and creativity and knowledge. Proceeding from a consideration of these issues and of Degenhardt's three criteria of creativity a set of five criteria of creativity are suggested. The implications for arts education of the six issues and the five criteria move consideration of the concept away from notions of creativity as inspiration or discovery and towards a view of creativity which is based on knowledge of the domain in which it occurs. This leads to a rejection of the notion that creativity is something which can be taught and transferred from one domain to another. The consequence of that is an affirmation of knowledge of any particular domain as the focus for creativity within the curriculum."

 
 

"Chapman, P. (1995). Education of students with disabilities in South Australia: policy purpose and practice. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"In 1991 the Education Department of South Australia, now named the Department for Education and Children's Services, released the Students with Disabilities policy in response to state and federal anti- discrimination legislation and community pressure regarding educational provisions for students with disabilities. The policy aimed to improve the educational outcomes for this group of students through focussing on access to and participation in a broad balanced curriculum. One of the most significant aspects of the policy was the requirement that schools develop negotiated curriculum plans for students who required special education support. Parents were invited to participate in this planning and to be supported to do so by an advocate of their choice. Teacher responsibilities as outlined in the policy included participation in the curriculum planning and the provision of a supportive learning environment in the classroom. This study had a two pronged approach - an analysis of the formal policy document and an investigation of the policy implementation at the school level. Analysis of the written policy revealed inconsistencies, ambiguities and omissions, the effect of which became evident during the school based study. Uncertainty regarding criteria to obtain special education support, absence of systematic monitoring and accountability and lack of teacher support and training, were most obvious. Teachers who participated in the research indicated that they had not changed their teaching as a result of the negotiated curriculum planning process. In most cases the process was not assisting them to develop learning goals or become acquainted with new teaching strategies. The most significant outcomes of the policy, as evident in this research study, were improved communication between parents and teachers and the increased documentation of special measures for individual students."

 
 

"Cobiac, S. T. (1995). Empowerment through critical teaching. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"The goal of this study was to discover the nature of empowerment, if any, perceived by student participants, when a critical teaching methodology is used within an environmental studies unit of studies in religion. The research was conducted with Year 11 students at Rostrevor College. The research method selected for this thesis was an emancipatory action research methodology. This methodology is compatible with the ideological and political assumptions of critical social theory which formed the philosophical foundations of the thesis. The specific teaching method used in the environmental studies unit was the critical teaching model being developed by the University of South Australia (Underdale Campus), in conjunction with practising classroom teachers in several schools. Student perceptions of empowerment through the critical teaching model were coded into indicators of empowerment and empowerment outcomes which were derived from two sources. These sources were literature about empowerment in critical teaching and literature about empowerment in research in environmental education. The study was considered to be successful for three major reasons. First, four of the five student groups planned and implemented action for the environment. Second, students in the study perceived that they had experienced some empowerment during the learning process and as an outcome of the process. Third, the majority of students perceived some growth in the development of their learning skills and many students experienced some changes in their attitudes and belief systems. The learning process, however, did not appear to have substantial impact on the motivation of students to be involved in future action for the environment. This outcome may be attributed to the limited duration of the course (eight weeks/forty lessons) and because this unit was the first and only occasion the students had experienced the critical teaching process. A proposal for future research is described which would give greater insight into the nature and extent of empowerment of students through the critical teaching method."

 
 

"Gravina, A. M. (1995). 'Readings' of units 3 and 4 of the Victorian Certificate of Education's Literature Study Design. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"The purpose of this thesis is to examine literary theory and its effect on the formation and practice of the final two semesters of the optional Victorian Certificate of Education's (VCE) Literature Study Design (units 3 and 4). It concentrates on the first year of VCE's full implementation, 1992. The thesis begins with an outline of the changes to the final two years of secondary education. The broad reasons for change together with the directions that were taken with the VCE are discussed. The review of literature, discusses three areas of literary theory. It considers textual criticism which concentrates on the word on the page, reader response with focuses on the reader as an active meaning maker of the text, and contextual criticism which explores the contexts in which a text is created and consumed. This thesis then reports, the research study which used an interpretative methodology to gather data from those who formed the course, those responsible for the administration of it, and those who taught it. Units 3 and 4 of the Literature Study Design are then outlined and explored. This is done by using the three areas of literary theory discussed, together with informants' comments on the required work. The verification process used within the assessment of students' work is also discussed. The next section focuses in detail on the informants' understandings of the two verified common assessment tasks. The implications of the informants understandings of the common assessment tasks are discussed within the framework of literary theory. The thesis concludes with an overview of the findings that have been discussed."

 
 

"Johnson, T. G. (1995). Multilevel models of student achievement in science. Bedford Park SA, Flinders University of South Australia."

PhD

"A series of secondary analyses of data collected during the Second IEA Science Study in 1983/84 were conducted to construct two- and three- level models of the major factors hypothesised to influence the science achievement of Year 12 Australian biology, chemistry and physics students. The models tested were used to compare student achievement in the sciences, and variation in other educational outcomes (eg, self- efficacy, values and attitudes) between: the Australian States and Territories; the Government, Catholic, and Independent education systems; schools located in urban, suburban, non-metropolitan and rural locations; and boys only, girls only and co-educational schools. The responses of male and female students were analysed separately in order to identify some of the sources of gender variation. The secondary issues examined were the influences of student self- efficacy and the effect of sex-type of school. The major factors influencing the science achievement of Year 12 students at level-1 were: computational skills, word knowledge, science self-efficacy, previous science learning experience, attitudes to science, science values and home background. At level- 2 and level-3 the influential factors differed for each of the sexes and each of the sciences. The two-level analyses supported the view that a common 'general' science achievement model operated for each of the sexes. However, the more specific three-level analyses revealed that, while there is some evidence of uniformity at the student-level, the gender differences observed at the class- and school-levels preclude this conclusion. The two-level analyses showed that self-efficacy exerted a positive direct effect on achievement of the same order of magnitude as word knowledge and science attitudes. The three- level results displayed greater variability. In the biology, chemistry and physics models for males self-efficacy was of greater relative importance than the analyses implied. However, self- efficacy factors were dropped during the construction of the three- level model of science achievement for the Year 12 physics and chemistry girls. The sex-type of school attended conferred no comparative advantage with respect to the achievement in science of the Year 12 students."

 
 

"Mezinec, D. J. (1995). National curriculum profiles: the quality of the sound in the zone of the possible. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"This study is a critical study of current practices in the description and assessment of student learning outcomes, particularly relating to the theoretical bases of the National LOTE Profile for Australian Schools, and the implementation of curriculum change. The research draws on data from my implementation of the LOTE Profile with two Italian classes in a rural Catholic Secondary College and involves: a curriculum mapping activity; a ten week period of using the Profile to assess seven work samples and inviting student participation as co- researchers in the analysis; a comparison of a computer generated report based on the LOTE Profile with a LOTE report currently used at the College; and a final questionnaire to help refine our understandings. Findings from the research show that a richer conceptualisation of language use and language learning needs to be developed in the LOTE Profile so that its outcomes also illuminate processes in the classroom and empower teachers in their teaching as well as students in their learning. A richly conceived Profile will furthermore assist in the reporting of student progress that meets the needs of local communities, and not just narrow interests of accountability. Thirdly, the study acknowledges the importance of teachers' critical reflection and active involvement in testing hypotheses to be included in such a profile. It also calls for the 're- establishment' of a national infrastructure to monitor state responses and co-ordinate this ' grassroots' activity so that over an extended period of time grounded theory will develop and will be synthesised in a document which will be recognised nationally and serve all stake- holders in language education."

 
 

"Munt, V. (1995). The SACE Australian studies curriculum: a theoretical critique from the perspective of Jurgen Habermas. SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"This thesis is a critique of the South Australian Certificate of Education curriculum for Australian studies from the theoretical perspective of Jurgen Habermas. It discusses the origins of critical theory; the Frankfurt School Institute of Social Research ( 1923-50) and the philosophical movement against positivism in the study of society. It elucidates the positive insights from Habermas' s social and epistemological theories, including the connection between knowledge and human interests; practical reason as opposed to instrumental reason and the evolutionally social developments in late capitalist societies. It attempts to explain how these developments can be understood in terms of lifeworld and system through the employment of communicative action in the interests of practical reason and social progress in the direction of freedom and justice."

 
 

"O'Brien, H. F. (1995). What happens when a multi-faith school community develops its own religious education policy for use in a Catholic school? Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"This thesis is an account of a community developing a new religious education policy for use within a Catholic school where the community has a high proportion of children and families from other faith traditions. A critique of the original religious education policy, developed in 1983, highlights the concerns expressed by the school community of the time in relation to the exclusivist nature of the religious education program. During 1993, a draft policy was produced by members of the community as part of this thesis and study. A critique of the process and draft policy reveals the continuing concerns of the community and the difficulties experienced in writing a policy that equally recognises the spiritual needs of all the community yet remains Catholic in orientation. A final policy was subsequently produced in 1994, which reflects a Catholic pluralist orientation. During the draft and final policy writing processes, an action research method was used the participants."

 
 

"Reid, A. M. (1995). A curriculum model for the deconstruction of dominant ideology and gendered relations embodied in Western art. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"The purposes of this study was to develop a model for art curriculum which utilises a socially critical method of art criticism to interrogate the values, beliefs and power relationships embodied in the gendered images of the Western artistic tradition. Although the South Australian charter for public schooling is explicit in stating that education provides students with the critical skills necessary to participate in improving society and eliminating social justice, evidence was sought to substantiate the claim that art curriculum has been less than responsive to calls for a more inclusive curriculum. For example, it was considered that the methodology employed to teach analysis, history and criticism (Part A) of the Senior Secondary Assessment Board of South Australia Year 12 art curriculum, and the content itself, were biased towards art grounded in the Western fine art tradition. To find evidence of this, the research process involved a critical analysis of fifty randomly selected responses to the Part A examination conducted in 1992. A review of the data collected formed part of an ideological critique substantiating the assertion that art curriculum serves a hegemonic role by promoting art that unquestioningly reflects the interests of a dominant group at the expense of others. Central to developing a socially critical pedagogy which acknowledges diversity and makes clear whose interests are being served by particular art forms, is feminist/post structuralist theory concerning personal subjectivity. It is argued that 'self', or one's subjectivity, is the first site of domination by ideological construction and therefore a prime concern for developing empowering pedagogy. It is only through an understanding of how identity is formed and reformed by interaction with discourse that the individual can see their subjectivity in context and make informed decisions about where they choose to position themselves. For the art curriculum to provide opportunities for students to explore the origins of their subjectivity and judge for themselves the usefulness of particular orientations, specific principles for the analysis of art works are advocated. The first two principles form the premise upon which analysis of art work is undertaken. Their substance provides the necessary content or concepts for students to begin the task of deconstruction. The third principle outlines a methodology for the analysis and deconstruction of art works. When utilised in conjunction with one another, these principles constitute a model for guiding processes of curriculum review."

 
 

"Sattler, M. (1995). The politics of harmony: a critical policy analysis of the New South Wales Board of Studies' studies of religion Years 11/12 curriculum. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"The New South Wales Board of Studies' Years 11/12 course, Studies of Religion was introduced for implementation in 1992. Studies of Religion's educational outcomes express a particular understanding of religious belief and practice and their role in 'multicultural', ' multifaith' Australia. The achievement of these outcomes is presented as being predicated on students' appreciation of the commonality amongst religions in Australia, and as fostering the harmony that is the product of this appreciation. In this pivotal regard, Studies of Religion is a vehicle for governmental social policy. This thesis investigates Studies of Religion as a political text, testing the hypothesis that, as such, it privileges certain theoretical voices and renders others silent, particularly in its key definitions of 'culture', 'multiculturalism', 'religion' and ' religion education'. Moreover, the research examines the proposition that, as committee document and, therefore, the product of political compromise, Studies of Religion contains internal tensions between contesting voices and interests, limiting the policy's potential to realise its stated social objectives. As a contribution to the projected review process for Studies of Religion, recommendations are offered regarding theoretical conditions and structural adjustments necessary for overcoming these tensions and enabling students to achieve the policy's goals of increased compassion and justice."

 
 

"Schodde, P. (1995). An examination of major aspects of the national science statement and profile. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"The three major aims in conducting an investigation of the national science statement and profile can be framed in the form of three questions: do the statement and profile adequately address the needs of the science education of Australian students?; are the statement and profile internally consistent in what they say about science and science education?; and is what the statement and profile say about science and science education supported by research and expert opinion. In investigating the first aim, the intention is to determine whether the statement and profile are an appropriate response to the issues raised in 'Science for everybody?', 'Towards a national science statement' (1988), and in the Australian Science Teachers Association report, 'Science in Australian schools' ( 1985). Both the paper and the report are considered reflections on the needs of science education in Australia. In addition, to provide breadth of view the statement and profile will be examined against major science education statements from within and beyond Australia, the latter acting as some form of yardstick against which the adequacy of the Australian response can be compared. In investigating the second aim, related sections and statements within the statement and profile are examined and compared against each other for internal consistency. In investigating the third aim, the views of science and science education presented in the statement and profile are compared against those in the current research literature. In addition, specific issues which the statement raises in developing key ideas (such as science in society, science and the environment, the general usefulness of science education and the function of student assessment and reporting in science education) are included as they arise."

 
 

"Smith, S. (1995). Examining the links: home economics, educational futures, and teacher perceptions. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"The aim of this study is to explore the extent to which home economics, as a subject within the South Australia secondary curriculum, is orientated towards the future in the way that leading educators and futures writers suggest that the current subjects should be, and compare this 'official' orientation with the perceptions of home economics teachers. The main body of research consisted of three main parts: a study of futures literature, a state wide survey of home economics teachers, and an analysis of current educational documentation. These parts were then examined to determine what links existed between them, ie. the extent to which home economics is, and might be, a part of a relevant education within South Australian secondary schools. Four 'trends' concerned with major areas of change, and linked closely to home economics, were identified from the futures literature. They included changing traditional family structures and relationships, social changes, the transformation of work, and changes in food, fabric and health technology. These 'trends' were the basis for a questionnaire issued to 113 schools. This focused on home economics teachers' current perceptions and their future thoughts on the teaching of issues within the four 'trends'. The 'trends' were also the main analysis tool used to examine current education department documents, including reports, philosophical statement, and curriculum guidelines. The study provided evidence that home economics did indeed have the potential to cover a rich range of issues deemed important, and necessary inclusions in a modern curriculum, by leading futures writers. Home economics teachers in South Australia generally recognised these issues, and to some considerable extent reported that they were covering these issues in their teaching. However, there were some significant points where the predictions of futures writers and the predictions of home economics teachers diverged. A conclusion from the study is that home economics teachers face a double challenge: the need continually to update their subject content, and the need to represent the value of their subject to others with clarity and conviction."

 
 

"Tonkin, L. A. (1995). Developing portfolios using the English statement and profile as a resource. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"This research explored how two teachers in South Australian primary classrooms developed portfolios with their students using the English Statement and Profile as a resource. The study was conducted in a year 7 and a reception/year 1 class in the same school during the first term of 1994. The focus of this research required a detailed investigation of the ways the teachers developed student portfolios and used the English Statement and Profile as a resource. For this reason, an interpretive approach, employing a case study methodology was used. In particular, the study focused on: the key features of the teachers' English language programs; the strategies the teachers used to develop portfolios; the uses the portfolios served for teachers' planning, assessing and reporting; the ways the teachers used the English Statement and Profile to develop student portfolios; and the uses of the English Statement and Profile as a resource for teaching. The research site was an independent Catholic, reception to year 12 school close to the city of Adelaide. Data collection took place during the first term of 1994. For the remainder of 1994, analysis of the data and writing of the thesis occurred and was concluded in February 1995. The key informants were the two teachers and three focus students in each class. The primary sources of data used were: transcripts of interviews with teachers and a range of documents, including samples of students' portfolios and the teachers' written planning and records. Other data included observations of the teachers and students, interviews with the focus students and reflections kept by the researcher. The following six findings resulted from this study. Identifying uses for the portfolios played an important role in their development. The teachers' English language programs and the English Statement and Profile influenced what went in the portfolios. The teachers' choice of a portfolio system was based, in part, on the age of the children. The portfolios became an integral part of the teachers' English language programs. The English Statement and Profile influenced different aspects of the teachers' programs. The demands on time meant that teachers delayed using the English Profile to make judgements about student achievement. To conclude, the implications for teachers and researchers were discussed."

 
 

"Wilson, S. (1995). And the Phantom wore purple: a journey into critical literacy in a primary classroom. Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"'A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step' (Lao- tze 550 BC). This thesis records the beginning of a journey undertaken by a year seven class and myself as their class teacher into the field of critical literacy. Along this journey my role was one of teacher, researcher learner and guide. The goal of the research was to teach critical literacy skills to my year seven class in a suburban primary school in South Australia. My aim was to have the children use these critical skills to question non- fiction texts in order to be less passive consumers of text by exploring how, and in whose interests, various readings are constructed. 'We read as we have been taught to read, and until we have been taught to look for certain things we will not see them' ( Scholes, 1985, p.6). It was anticipated that as a result of undertaking this research in critical literacy the students would begin to develop the ability to 'look for certain things'. These were: stereotyping and racial bias; the ways in which texts position readers; whose interests are served by particular readings; taken for granted or dominant readings; the gaps and silences in texts; and the historical and social context in which the text was written. The main questions framing the investigation were: to what extent are students able to critically examine texts? Which activities help children to challenge texts? What kinds of questions do children ask about the texts? To what extent do children resist critical approaches to texts? And what role can I as teacher play in supporting the development of critical literacy skills? In addressing these questions through a series of lessons over one school term, I wanted to help my students understand how various readings are produced and to try and identify whose interests are served by those readings. This approach is based upon Scholes' (1985) belief that our job is not to produce 'readings' for our students, but to give them the tools for producing their own. In the research colonial versions of Australian history as they relate to Aborigines were challenged and linked to racism."

 
 

"Wooldridge, N. A. (1995). A collaborative exploration of critical literacy pedagogy: private detective work? Adelaide SA, University of South Australia."

MEd

"Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds do not achieve academic success from schooling in the same proportions and to the same extent as students from wealthy backgrounds. They do not achieve as highly as their wealthier peers on assessments of literacy conducted by schools and education systems. A view of literacy as social and cultural practices provides some explanation for their lower achievement on literacy assessments. The literature indicates that supporting students to develop critical literacy is one aspect of a more socially just curriculum. The collaborative action research project reported here set out to develop a set of principles or guidelines for curriculum planning in support of critical literacy development for secondary students. As the investigation proceeded, the focus changed. Through the action research process the units of work discussed by the coresearchers became an instrument for each individual to develop a theorised view of critical literacy teaching rather than a source from which to distil curriculum development guidelines. This research notes issues about teaching as a socially situated political activity, in particular concerning the accreditation system and the difficulties associated with acknowledging the political dimensions of teaching. Pedagogy for critical literacy is seen as providing questions, rather than answers. Processes for supporting students to see different reading positions for texts are explored. Tensions associated with the concept of inclusivity are noted. The process itself became the focus of critical reflection. Questions are raised about the meaning of collaboration in action research processes and about whether action research is ever as 'neat' as the literature suggests. Some tensions in conducting action research for a higher degree are described. This study concludes that there are no definitive answers to these ambiguities but that a way forward lies in articulating and investigating them."

 

TAS

 
 

"Andrew, R. G. (1995). A way to go: curriculum needs of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. Sandy Bay TAS, University of Tasmania."

MEd

"The focus of debate around the issue of equity and schooling has concentrated mainly upon access as a rights conditional to social justice, rather than the curriculum undertaken by students who are included in regular schools. This study first sought to describe and find priorities for the curriculum needs of young adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disabilities (MID) and second, to determine criteria by which stakeholders might evaluate the appropriateness of curriculum undertaken by MID students. Individuals from a spread of stakeholder groups were surveyed. The stakeholder groups were teachers, parents, peers, employers, community agency professionals, administrators and taxpayers. Results indicated that: the content and outcomes of non- academic curriculum domains were clearly favoured over those of the traditional academic curriculum domain; the students' highest priorities (ie, of social adjustments and life skills) were not reflected in the assessment records given most attention by teachers and the educational system; alternative programs and assessment models were recognised by stakeholders as most important to school and post- school outcomes; community- referenced, ecologically planned, cross- contextual learning was valued highly but not readily available; while employers favoured more academic domain engagement for MID adolescents than did other stakeholders, they placed greatest importance on non- academic skills (eg, punctuality and impulse control) of employees; and proximal stakeholders and employers favoured earlier and more workplace experience for MID adolescents. The results have been used to propose several criteria for appropriate curriculum."

 
 

"Bennett, J. (1995). The re-worked fairy tale: an approach to teaching how fiction works. Sandy Bay TAS, University of Tasmania."

MEdSt

"By reading reworked fairy tales, in picture books and woven into an apparent realist novel, to Year 5 children and engaging them in conversations over an eight week period, the author helped them to position themselves differently, and in so doing to see themselves differently, in that they began to become both critically and creatively aware of how structure and literary patterns contribute to meaning. The author taped the children's talk and used their journal entries to evaluate the critical and creative nature of their responses in order to reflect on different ways in which the author could intervene to help them become more aware. Whilst at times recording their talk was intrusive, it became evident that it was an effective way of analysing their responses. In the study, the reworked fairy tales were used as a means of teaching how fiction works from a cultural perspective. The tales and the novel cited in the study are indicative of the change in narrative over the last thirty years and the gradual evolution in the ways stories are told, and the changing views of readers. The metafictive nature of these books emphasises its refusal to take for granted how stories are told. In using metafictional elements the writers/illustrators or ' contemporary adaptors' offer many cognitive and emotional opportunities for children to become aware and acute readers. During the program, the children were read a range of reworked fairy tales by writers/illustrators which included Jon Scieszka, Lane Smith, Steve Johnson, Roald Dahl and Tony Ross. As a result they began to understand jokes in the mostly humorous tales where opposition occurs between normal expectations and some incongruous elements. As Kieran Egan points out, 'A joke is not only funny; it is potentially another of those little factories of understanding, a place where understanding can be made and expanded.' (1986, p86)."

 
 

"Naqvi, M. J. (1995). Australia in Asia and the Pacific (AAP) at Fahan. Sandy Bay TAS, University of Tasmania."

MEdSt

"Major objectives of the social studies syllabuses in Years 9-12 within schools of the Education Department of Tasmania are to enable young people to become socially, culturally and Asia literate in the 1990's. Teachers at Fahan School have not been involved in the recent development of the social studies syllabuses for the Tasmanian Certificate of Education (TCE) because social studies as such is not taught at Fahan. The school has traditionally preferred to include social studies content in the senior (secondary) school within the subject disciplines of history and geography. However, teachers have held parallel concerns with teachers in other schools regarding the content of courses. During 1987 teachers at Fahan perceived an Australian and Asian literacy gap in curriculum offerings at the school and courses were devised to fill that gap under various banners between 1988 and 1992, Australian studies in Year 9 from 1988- 1990, Asian studies in Year 9 and Australia in Asia and the Pacific (AAP) in 1992. Australia in Asia and the Pacific, within Education Department schools, is an extension of the Years 9 and 10 social sciences into Years 11 and 12. (In Year 9 the social sciences are termed Australian studies and in Year 10 they are termed world studies). Australia in Asia and the Pacific at Fahan, was also conceived from the implementation of Australian studies in Year 9 and the planning of world studies in Year 10. In 1991, a year when no social studies courses were taught in the Fahan Senior School, a document entitled 'Australian studies at Fahan' by the author investigated the question 'Is our Fahan leaver a culturally literate Australian? This was done by examining the content of all social studies units K-6 (junior school) and all history and geography units 7-12 (senior school). The conclusions reached included the notion that modification of curricula was necessary to develop greater social, cultural and Asian literacy amongst Fahan students. This was a precursor to much of the thinking in this thesis, which had two main objectives: to document the development of Australia in Asia and the Pacific as a subject for the Tasmanian Certificate of Education in general and as a viable subject for Fahan School in particular; and to put theory into practice through reflection of teaching in 1992 and planning for teaching in 1993."

 
 

"Nolan, B. (1995). A study of the relationship between discipline specific training and the images secondary teacher trainees hold of teaching. Sandy Bay TAS, University of Tasmania."

MEdSt

"The central purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not the images which secondary teachers hold of teaching are partly determined by their subject discipline. A literature review suggests that there are four kinds of teacher images. These are images of the teacher as teacher, images of the curriculum, significant signposts, and discipline specific images. These various images overlap and are interdependent. In order to gauge how significant the differences in teacher images are between disciplines, final year secondary teacher trainees were asked to give their idea of 'a really good teacher'. Using twenty characteristics of good teaching derived from Weinstein's (1989) research the trainees were asked to rank these qualities in order of importance. Responses were contrasted on the basis of discipline, structure of training and gender. Results show that the images that secondary trainees hold of the good teacher do differ between disciplines. The differences are more marked when the students are studying a Diploma of Education course. Comparisons with a group of experienced primary teachers indicate that those students in the final year of an integrated Bachelor of Education course are more child centred than Diploma of Education students in their view of good teaching. Gender does not appear to be a major factor in the images these trainees hold of the good teacher. This study adds to an understanding of image in three ways. It suggests that the way teachers think about teaching is a deeply entrenched way of thinking partly dependent on discipline specialisation. It proposes that a teacher's self image is dependent on a variety of macro and micro influences, significant among which is discipline. Finally, it suggests that these discipline specific images are generated by institutions in a largely implicit way. These institutions include schools as well as tertiary institutions. The study ends with recommendations for further research into how a teacher's self, teaching experience, discipline, and teacher training interrelate to produce teacher images."

 

VIC

 
 

"Adamson, D. (1995). The challenge of the new: a study of the impact on teachers of an externally mandated system wide curriculum change. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"This study aimed to examine aspects of the introduction, in the state of Victoria, Australia, of an externally mandated; system wide.; curriculum change, the Victorian Certificate of Education ( VCE). More specifically, the emphasis was on changes to the study of mathematics. Three questions were investigated. How did the teachers respond to this change ? What was the influence of the extensive public debate that arose over the VCE? What were the factors which helped or hindered the implementation of this change? The investigation was a longitudinal study taking place over the four year period from 1989 to 1992. The focus was on the changes to mathematics, seen through the lens of a group of teachers in a school charged with implementing the change through a series of phases. Qualitative methodological techniques were used to gather data. These included a case study approach collecting data from the school where the author, as a researcher, took the position of a participant observer. In addition a content analysis of published articles in the popular press and official publications was undertaken. The study found that the VCE was successfully implemented due to its adoption by teachers and their willingness to work hard to ensure its success which arose from a commitment to their students. Also that two of the underlying tenets of the VCE remained intact, despite other changes. These tenets were that the VCE remained a single certificate and that a breadth of subject choice for students was available. Factors which hindered the successful implementation were the lack of professional development, funding, resources, support and consultation, while at the same time teachers were expected to carry a significantly increased workload. The public debate over the introduction of the VCE, set in the context of an impending election, was a major influence in causing changes to some aspects of the VCE. Changes which occurred in consultation with teachers tended to aid implementation while other imposed changes tended to hinder or slow implementation. An unpredicted outcome of the introduction of the VCE was that the work requirement approach to teaching was accepted as a valuable process and was incorporated into lower levels in schools."

 
 

"Adamson, R. (1995). Australian Studies: a failed attempt at reform. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"This study explored the introduction of Australian Studies, Units 1 and 2, as part of the Victorian Certificate of Education. The implementation of Australian Studies was mandated by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Board, the body responsible for post compulsory education in the state of Victoria, Australia. This study investigated the process of change involved in the implementation of Australian Studies, by a group of practising teachers, at Keilor Heights Secondary College. As part of the study, approaches to research methodologies in the social sciences, especially in relation to education and other areas of change management were reviewed. A particular focus was placed upon the case study approach to research and to the role of the researcher in such an approach. This study concluded that where once there was a polarisation of opinion concerning the 'appropriate' form of research in the social sciences; a division between qualitative and quantitative approaches, the focus has moved towards ensuring that whatever form the study takes, that this form has its own integrity. Each approach is seen to have its own contribution to make to the social sciences. The use of the case study as a form of research was supported, in that it allowed the voices of the participants to emerge. It was recognised that the role of the researcher will vary according to the nature of the research being undertaken. This study found that the role of participant observer was considerably easier to fulfil than that of change agent. The use of an outside consultant, working in a negotiated, on-going capacity with schools was supported. Finally, when considering mandated change, this study agreed with Andy Hargreaves that it is ' better to make menus not mandates'."

 
 

"Anderson, A. E. (1995). Technical schools and the change to technology studies. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"The first part of the thesis investigates, albeit briefly, the influence technical education exerted on the secondary education system in Victoria, from 1869 - 1992, giving due regard to the influential personnel, and the key times in its development, that helped make it an integral part of Victorian secondary education for so long. The second part is devoted to the largely unsuccessful attempts to introduce a hybrid form of technology studies to all Victorian secondary schools. Comment focuses on what is seen as obstacles to this introduction, which includes such things as historical considerations, teacher dissatisfaction with implementation procedures, lack of retraining for existing teachers, and logistic and funding constraints. The third part investigates the origins and teaching philosophies, of two Victorian secondary colleges, with commentary on their respective attempts to introduce two different forms of technology studies into their curriculum. One an all inclusive technology studies that has as a basis, a common theme that runs through the whole school program, while the other is exclusively devoted to the manual arts and information technology."

 
 

"Barresi, A. (1995). The effects of instruction about sentence structure on the development of descriptive writing performed by upper primary ESL students. Ascot Vale VIC, Australian Catholic University."

MEd(Hons)

"This study investigated the effectiveness of explicit grammar instruction about sentence structure within a writing program for ESL Year 5/6 primary school students. Twenty students were recruited to participate in the study. The control group consisted of ten students who were randomly assigned by class group to a whole writing program. They did not receive teaching intervention about grammar. The remaining ten students - the experimental treatment group - were randomly assigned by class group to an explicit grammar intervention group. The students in the control group received twelve 45 minute lessons [two per week]. These lessons included descriptive writing of imaginary people and factual places without grammatical instruction. The students in the intervention group received explicit teaching about prepositional phrases and dependent clauses within twelve 45 minute lessons of the same descriptive writing program given to the control group. To assess the effectiveness of the explicit grammar intervention, pretreatment and posttreatment descriptive writing samples were collected from the students. This has been administered successfully in other studies as it can yield useful about the semantic and syntactical development of the writers according to their age and grade. This study also sought to investigate the effects of an L2 background on development of written syntax. Six hypotheses examined the effectiveness of the treatment intervention in expanding sentence structures in descriptive writing. Two-way analysis of variance [ repeated measures] design was employed in the statistical interpretation of the data gathered. The results of this study supported the hypothesis that explicit grammatical teaching has an effect on written language performance with an increase in the use of prepositional phrases, dependent clauses, adjectives and text length. However, the data indicated that there was not a significant difference, posttreatment, between the experimental treatment group and the control group with regard to their use of adverbs and increase in clause length. Suggestions for further research are outlined, and implications for the syntactical development of ESL writers in relation to specific procedures for teachers of ESL students are recommended in the conclusion of this study."

 
 

"Bell, L. M. (1995). The effects of a monitoring and assessment program on the learning and teaching processes of the primary classroom. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"This study investigated the effects of a monitoring and assessment program on the learning and teaching processes of the primary classroom focused on recording formats. Teachers used the recording formats to gain specific information about student progress in language learning. Specifically the researcher sought to determine whether the use of the recording formats had an impact in any way on learning and teaching, and if so, the nature and extent of this impact. The teachers who participated in this study found that the formats they implemented were of significant use in the classroom. In order for teachers to collect valuable assessment information, teachers had to plan tasks and activities that were open- ended and allowed for the children to work independently. Consequently the children in classes became less dependent on the teacher, were able to work more effectively in groups and improved their problem- solving skills. By using the recording formats, teachers gained specific assessment information that gave them an accurate picture of what an individual child could do. 'The Further Support Needed' section of the recording formats allowed teachers to move the students forward and plan activities that were directly related to improving learning. This did not occur as frequently before the introduction of the formats. Support, both within the school and from outside facilitators, was vital. Teachers felt more able to observe and record student progress when there was another teacher present. They found discussion with colleagues and others useful in clarifying concerns, and were better able to 'know what to look for' when monitoring and assessing. There is evidence from this study that the information collected by teachers was of value when reporting student progress to parents, in both the interview situation and written reports. Teachers felt they could more accurately report because they had built up a collection of information about how a child wrote, read, listened and spoke. This information was gathered in different contexts and learning areas and allowed teachers to gather tangible evidence. Teachers overwhelmingly found the formats of use, but indicated that interruptions, changes in routine, and similar happenings reduced the amount of time they felt they needed to use them fully."

 
 

"Bennet, A. (1995). An examination of the Science Technology Society (STS) approach to secondary school science education. Bundoora VIC, La Trobe University."

MEd

"The thesis reports on research related to the Science Technology Society approach to science education which has been used in some secondary schools for the last fifteen years approximately. An examination was made of the Science Technology Society approach to science education as reported in the literature, with a particular emphasis on the contributions to this field by three 'key players': Robert Yager of the United States of America, Glen Aikenhead of Canada and Joan Solomon of England. The use of the published work of the three 'key players' on the Science Technology Society approach to science education was studied for the identification of some common characteristics that can be seen to arise from their ideas to this approach. The thesis also investigated the use of these common characteristics to form a set of criteria in the form of a list of questions which can be used for the evaluation of resources which may be under consideration for use in a science education programme required to be utilising a Science Technology Society approach. This research involved a survey of the literature, an analysis of the work of the three 'key players' identified above, the development of a set of criteria based questions."

 
 

"Brass, C. B. (1995). Conceptions of quality learning in physics. Clayton VIC, Monash University."

MEd

"The purpose of this research study was to explore the conceptions of quality learning held by two groups of physics educators in Victoria: senior secondary school physics teachers and first year university physics lecturers. Given the complexity of 'quality learning', in- depth interviews were used so as to reveal as much as possible of the participants' conceptions. An interview protocol was developed which used a series of physics questions as probes to explore the aspects of physics learning that the interviewees would want to foster. The interview protocol also had built into it an opportunity for the interviewees to bring into the discussion any aspects of physics learning that they would want to foster but that the physics questions used had not elicited. Each aspect of learning mentioned by the interviewees is discussed separately so that a picture of the interviewees' attitudes to each of these aspects of learning across the groups is built up. From the aspects of learning that the interviewees wanted to foster, or not foster, and details of their reasoning for doing so, inferences are drawn about the interviewees' conceptions of quality learning. Two qualitatively different conceptions of quality learning emerge, one conception was held by all of the secondary group and one member of the tertiary group, the other conception was held by the remainder of the tertiary group. Both of these conceptions are described: in summary, the first conception is centred on the students as active independent learners of physics; the second conception is centred far more on physics as a content area or discipline to be learned."

 
 

"Bride, M. (1995). A comparison of the levels of students' career maturity resulting from two models for the delivery of career education programs in selected Victorian government secondary schools. Geelong VIC, Deakin University."

MEd

"At both national and state levels, the delivery of career education has been recommended to follow an integrated model with a high level of staff participation across the school. However it has been found that in many schools the career education program is primarily delivered by a careers teacher. This study compared whether the recommended integrated model or the specialist careers teacher model delivered better outcomes for students in terms of their levels of career maturity. A survey of Victorian government schools in two regions identified the way the career education program was delivered in each school. The ten schools with the most integrated program were contrasted with the ten schools with the least integrated program. Year 11 students, selected from each school, responded to an instrument to assess their levels of career maturity. The measure used was a revised form of the Career Development Inventory-Australia. The main finding of the research is that the integrated model of delivery of career education programs did make a significant difference to the cognitive career maturity of the students in the selected Victorian government secondary schools."

 
 

"Bunnett, A. B. (1995). Information technology in social education: a study of the factors influencing social education database development. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"This thesis examines the factors which influenced the development of an educational database called 'Development, boom and bust', which, took over ten years to complete. The thesis commences with an examination of the content, methodological and other reasons for the use of information technology in social education. It concludes that databases have much to offer social education curricula in terms of both teaching content as well as illuminating the methods of the social scientist. Databases such as 'Development, boom and bust' have the additional benefit of encouraging students to develop a healthy respect for the potential unreliability of published data, an important attitude in this information technology oriented society. In the light of this analysis other social education databases published in the past 10 years are then examined. Despite their obvious value many are found to be either out of date and need upgrading to current levels of technology. Issues involved in the design and creation of social education databases are then explored with respect to three elements: software design and selection, data issues, and curriculum materials design. Initially hampered by technological problems, the 'Development, boom and bust' project was eventually completed as a result of technological developments, as well as human factors such as illness (resulting in increased availability of time), and particular combinations of skills and content expertise. Despite their considerable advantages there has been little further development of databases since the first rush of enthusiasm in the early 1980's. It is suggested that reasons for this include the dearth of developers with appropriate skills, and the poor financial rewards for the volume of work."

 
 

"Cafarella, C. (1995). Assessor accommodation in the 1992 Victorian Certificate of Education Italian oral test. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MA

"In oral proficiency tests there are occurrences of trouble in interaction such as misunderstanding, non hearing or lack of understanding which may cause breakdown in communication. Within the context of the question answer framework of an oral proficiency test this thesis investigates the interactive nature of spoken discourse between students and assessors when there is trouble in talk as perceived by the assessors, with a focus on how they accommodate to the students. A sample of 20 oral transcripts of the 1992 Victorian Certificate of Education Italian common assessment task (CAT 2) were randomly selected and examined. The purpose of the study was to investigate in repair and non repair sequences types of assessor accommodation, how the assessors modified their utterances, the kinds of trouble perceived by assessors, what triggered assessor accommodation and whether the accommodations facilitated student response and participation. The accommodation types used by assessors were slow down, repetition, rephrase, elaboration, either/ or, tag and yes/no questions and supplying correct language forms. It was found that in repair sequences triggers of assessor accommodation were student lack of understanding, non response and misunderstanding. In these cases the trouble source was in the assessor talk and so the assessor perceived that some modification was needed to his/her utterance in order to remedy the trouble. At times assessors also repaired student talk triggered by problems with the students' use of the Italian language system. In non repair sequences triggers were in the talk of the student such as minimal answers, pauses and perturbation, and also previous accommodations triggering the assessors to continue accommodating. Many of the accommodation types were successful in ensuring students' responding appropriately with rephrasing and elaboration being the most successful since the trouble source was clarified. The accommodation type of repetition was found not to facilitate the subsequent student talk since the trouble source was not identified. This study has implications for assessor training since it highlights which strategies are most successful for ensuring student understanding, participation and appropriate responses as well as demonstrating why and in which environments assessors accommodate."

 
 

"Calnin, G. T. (1995). Changing schools: accommodating changes in learning theory. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"Change is a constant theme in our world today; so too in the world of education. While there are no certainties about our future, this thesis tries to make sense of our attempts to help students prepare for life in the 21st century. This study explores some of the global changes which are impacting on our schools and students, explores some of the literature increasing our understanding of learners, and examines some recent research on the learning process. It draws on contemporary literature and research and direct evidence from school experiences in an attempt to formulate a set of theoretical guidelines which schools might consider in their attempts to improve the quality of teaching and learning in educational settings. Contemporary research into learning has produced evidence to suggest that we should be heading towards a more independent learner model which employs social constructivist theory as its pedagogical base in order to equip students for the demands of the new millennium. This theory has a strong research base, but there are also other catalysts. Technological developments have brought the computer into the hands of individual students, which provides them with instant access to the most up-to- date information, but more importantly, empowers them as learners. At the same time research into the workings of the brain and how learning occurs and the theory of multiple intelligence are adding weight to the call for more effective teaching and learning strategies. Learning theory is examined and its implications for classroom practice, but more particularly, the implications for school structures, work organisation and the management of schools which might better accommodate such changes to classroom practice. The thesis argues that these structures need to change if we are to improve learning and therefore better prepare young people for their future."

 
 

"Caravas, V. (1995). What type of reading intervention program best meets the needs of weaker secondary readers? Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

thesis_89"Reading Intervention Programs which currently exist such as ' Success For All' by Robert Slavin et al (1992) and 'Reading Recovery' by Marie Clay (1993) are designed to cater for the needs of young children in primary schools. However very little exists for weaker readers in the secondary school system as it is assumed that students entering school at Year 7 have established reading and writing processes. This is unfortunately not the case for many secondary schools. Given that society expects all individuals to be 'literate', it should not be taken lightly as it is not only an essential survival skill for all throughout life but also vital in order to progress through one's academic years. Given that there is no perfect definition of literacy, Reading Intervention in a secondary school context aims to firstly create opportunities for students to catch up, if they are ever able to; or simply to survive the reading demands placed upon them in mainstream classes and secondly to help students begin to enjoy reading and start to read independently. The researcher attempts to address this problem by describing her Reading Intervention Program which currently exists at Manah Secondary College and through an analysis of the literature on the subject, suggests further improvements."

 
 

"Casey, B. (1995). The role of the curriculum co-ordinator in selected independent girls' schools. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

thesis_90"The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the curriculum coordinator in selected independent girls' schools in relation to Schwab's (1983) model and to elaborate his theory in practice. Three curriculum coordinators were asked to participate in this study, the methodology of which involved diary keeping and interviews based on the program used by Wood (1992) in the professional development of senior staff. The general findings of the study supported the usefulness of Schwab's model and proposed a typology of leadership styles of curriculum deliberation showing its relationship to management and policy determination in the school."

 
 

"Cavanough, S. (1995). Learner-centred assessment for the classroom teacher. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MA

"In second language teaching there has been a move to validate the kinds of assessment procedures being carried out by teachers in the classroom. Intimidated by the difficulty of developing traditional formats of classroom tests, for example, multiple-choice and cloze, teachers are looking for 'alternative' methods which reflect the learning processes occurring in the classroom. This study reports on the factors that influence the implementation of learner- centred assessment in the second- language classroom. It begins with a literature review which defines assessment, examines learner-centred assessment for the classroom teacher and surveys learner-centred assessment procedures. It includes a report of the experiences in implementing a learner-centred assessment in three teaching situations. A discussion follows which highlights the significant factors influencing the implementation of learner- centred assessment. The study concludes with a discussion of the importance of learner- centred assessment and offers suggestions for further research."

 
 

"Cawthan, L. J. (1995). Gifted children in the Loddon Campaspe Mallee Region of country Victoria: a parental and student perspective. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"This study has surveyed rural families in the Loddon Campaspe Mallee Region of Victoria to establish whether they are experiencing difficulties raising and educating their gifted children. Gifted children at primary and secondary levels were also surveyed. Seventy one families located throughout the region were accessed through schools and a parent support group for parents of children with special abilities. The parents and the gifted children completed written questionnaires. The parent questionnaire was divided into four parts: family background; geographical information; giftedness; and school situation. The study found that aspects of the family background mirrored those found in other research. Although some families were positive about their rural life, most of the families were experiencing some difficulties raising and educating their child in a rural area because of distance, isolation and rural recession. The families strongly expressed their greatest needs as being schools recognising their children as gifted and providing appropriate programs. It was concluded there is a need for policy on gifted children at both state and school level, for more teachers to be trained in educating the gifted and that training be made easily accessible for teachers in rural areas. Parents need to be trained as effective advocates for gifted children."

 
 

"Collins, M. A. (1995). The articulation and creation of power relationships in a primary dance education setting. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"This thesis examines the meanings that interpersonal relationships in dance have for children and the potential of dance to contribute to an understanding of how we can live and work together. These issues were examined through the implementation of dance curriculum that aimed to be accessible, non threatening to identity and empowering to a group of upper primary school children. The curriculum explored connections between interpersonal relationships in dance and forms of personal power observed in classroom interaction. It examined the ways dance education can contribute to new ideas, new meanings and new understandings of personal power. The thesis paper presents the processes undertaken in developing the dance curriculum. It also presents the emergent curriculum. Participant responses to the curriculum are discussed. Changes observed in group interactive processes and the exercise of power behaviours are delineated. The paper details the prior assumptions that were confirmed or refuted and the new perspectives that emerged in the study. It endeavours to convey what interpersonal experiences were like for participants in the dance curriculum and some of the meanings associated with power that evolved. Finally, the paper discusses the conditions of setting that may have affected response to the curriculum and considers issues linked to implementing change in education. Recommendations are made for future research in the area of educational dance."

 
 

"Corbitt, B. J. (1995). Homeless students, schools and the policy process: a study of the implementation of the Students at Risk Homelessness Project in Victoria (1989 - 1991). Clayton VIC, Monash University."

PhD

"As a result of the release of the Burdekin Report in 1989, the Commonwealth Government developed a series of initiatives in the August budget of that year, including an educational program, the Students at Risk Program. In Victoria, the Ministry for Education developed and implemented seven Projects within the Students at Risk Program, including one on Homelessness. This thesis reports a two years study of the development and implementation of that Homelessness Project. The study confirms that schools can successfully assist homeless and 'at risk' students to remain in school. It shows that there was clear mismatch between the rhetoric of the policy and the nature of practice in each of the schools. This mismatch is attributed to a range of interrelated influences. These influences included the complex nature of the homelessness problem, different approaches to the resolution of the problem in each school, a continual breakdown in social relations between participants throughout implementation, continual recontextualising of the policy by staff in each school, repeated contestation of official directives, the radicalisation of the school principals involved, and the iterative nature of the policy process. The study of implementation of the Homelessness Project has highlighted the need for policy directed to 'at risk' students in schools to be developed and implemented in a co-operative, democratic way to avoid rejection, reinterpretation and manipulation of policy at the school level. The debate over the nature of policy is far from resolved and conceptualisations about the nature and role of the state, and the nature of power relations in the policy process, are more complex than is generally asserted in the literature. This thesis contributes to the debate and suggests that the state can and does affect the nature of policy acceptance at the micro level, but that this is often countered by the strength of institutionalised practice in schools. In conclusion, therefore, whilst there is evidence that both the state and the school affect implementation, the effects are neither homogeneous nor continuous. Recognition of variations in the degree of influence of the state and schools might eventually lead to a fuller understanding of the nature of policy and allow more larger scale theorising to be derived."

 
 

"da Silva, D. G. (1995). A review of the policy of integrating students with disabilities into Victorian post-primary schools. Parkville VIC, University of Melbourne."

MEd

"This study set out to examine how the integration of students with disabilities in post primary schools is viewed by the teachers