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Determinants of Literacy and Numeracy among Primary School Children in Vietnam

This project investigates the school, home and community factors influencing literacy and numeracy of Vietnamese primary school children. Tests in mathematics and Vietnamese language have been developed for children in years 3 and 5. Samples have been drawn from 5 provinces (Ha Noi, Hien Bai, Thanh Hon, Quang Nam and Vinh Long). Questionnaires were developed for head teachers, teachers and students. Tests of mathematics (number, chance, problem solving and measurement) and Vietnamese (reading, language structure and writing) were linked across years 3 and 5 to estimate growth. The project is the first phase of a longitudinal project that aims to monitor achievement levels and provide policy advice to the Ministry of Education and Training within the World Bank Primary Education Project. In 2000 the project was extended with data collection planned for 2001 in all 60 provinces and a sample of almost 80,000 students.


Griffin, P. (1998). Vietnamese five province study of student achievement in mathematics and Vietnamese. National Institute for Education and Science: Hanoi.

National Institute for Education and Science (2000). Report of Phase 2 of the Vietnam Monitoring Project. NIES: Ha Noi.

Tran Kieu and Griffin, P. (1999). The determinants of achievement in Vietnam primary schools. Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Council for School Effectiveness, Institute of Education, Hong Kong, January.

Griffin, P. (2003) What were the levels of achievement of Grade 5 pupils in Reading and Mathematics

Griffin, P. (1999) Pressures, Priority and Progress: An International Perspective on School Assessment. The University of Melbourne

Griffin, P. (2000) Test Development and Calibration. The University of Melbourne.

Griffin, P. (2001) Vietnam Primary School Monitoring Report. The University of Melbourne

Griffin, P. National and System Testing.

Griffin, P. (2001) Establishing Meaningful Language Test Scores for Selection and Placement. Studies in Language Testing. University of Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. 11: 97-107